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Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: Fundamentals of Frontiers

Author : M.S. Ramachandra Rao, Shubra Singh
Price INR : ₹.539.00
ISBN 13 : 9788126542017
ISBN 10 : 8126542012
Pages : 388
Type : Paperbound

Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: Fundamentals to Frontiers


Nanoscience and nanotechnology are evolving at a rapid pace and there have been a number of scientific and  technological advancements in these fields in recent times. This book explains scientific foundations governing the functionality of nanostructures and makes the reader familiar with several basic and application aspects of nano-structured systems.


This book is designed as a Nanoscience and Nanotechnology course text book that could be offered by Physics, Materials Science and Nanoscience streams in various core departments and nanotechnology centres and other related departments in universities, institutes and colleges. In addition, it can serve as a self-study book to postgraduate and research students.


About the Authors

1. The Science Behind Nanotechnology

1.1 History of Nanoscience

1.2 Definition of Nanometer, Nanomaterials, and Nanotechnology

1.2.1 A Broad Definition: A Popular Perspective of Nanotechnology

1.2.2 A Narrow Definition: A Scientifi c Perspective of Nanotechnology

1.3 Classification of Nanomaterials

1.3.1 Few Examples of Nanostructured Materials

1.3.2 Increased Surface Area of Nanomaterials

1.4 Nanotechnology from the Perspective of Medieval Period

2. Concepts of Solid-State Physics Relevant to Low-Dimensional Systems

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Crystal Symmetries, Crystal Directions, and Crystal Planes

2.2.1 Primitive Vectors

2.2.2 Wigner–Seitz Cell

2.2.3 Two-Dimensional Lattice Types

2.2.4 Primitive Cells of Three-Dimensional Lattices

2.2.5 Crystallographic Planes and Miller Indices

2.2.6 Crystal Family

2.2.7 Structure Determination by X-Ray Diffraction

2.2.8 Reciprocal Lattice

2.2.9 Structure Factor

2.3 Band Structure

2.3.1 Bound States in Atoms

2.3.2 Bound and Free Electron States in Solids

2.3.3 Influence of the Lattice Periodicity

2.4 Classification of Solid-State Materials

2.5 Bulk Properties of Materials

2.5.1 Electrical Conductivity

2.5.2 Dielectric Properties

2.5.3 Thermal Properties

2.6 Magnetic Materials

2.6.1 Domains in Magnetic Materials

2.6.2 Single-Domain Nature and the Superparamagnetism

2.7 Effect of Size Reduction on Bulk Properties

2.8 Optoelectronic Property of Bulk and Nanostructures

2.8.1 Relation Between Optical Properties and the Electronic Structure of Materials

2.9 Electronic Structure of Nanomaterials and the Fermi Surface

2.9.1 Fermi Surface

2.9.2 Size Effect on Electron–Phonon Coupling

2.9.3 Size Effect on Physical Properties

2.10 Luminescence from Nanoparticles

2.11 Raman Spectroscopy of Nanoparticles

2.12 Thermodynamics of Nanomaterials: Change in Melting Point

3. Quantum Mechanics of Low-Dimensional Systems and Its Application to Nanoscience

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Energy Considerations: Bound States and Density of States

3.2.1 Three-Dimensional DOS

3.2.2 Two-Dimensional DOS

3.2.3 One-Dimensional DOS

3.2.4 Zero-Dimensional DOS

3.3 Quantum Confinement

3.3.1 Quantum Confinement along One Dimension: Quantum Wells

3.3.2 Quantum Confinement along Two Dimensions: Quantum Wires

3.3.3 Quantum Confinement along Three Dimensions: Quantum Dots

3.3.4 Summary of the Confined States in Quantum Wells, Quantum Wires, and Quantum Dots

3.4 Superlattices

3.5 Band Offsets

3.6 Quantum Transport in Nanoclusters/Quantum Dots

4 Basic Aspects of Synthesis of Nanomaterials and Device Fabrication

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Synthesis of Bulk Polycrystalline Samples

4.2.1 Solid-State Reaction Route

4.2.2 Sol–Gel Technique

4.3 Growth of Single Crystals

4.3.1 Czochralski Method

4.3.2 Bridgeman Technique

4.3.3 Zone Melting Method

4.4 Synthesis Techniques for the Preparation of Nanoparticles

4.4.1 Bottom–Up Approach

4.4.2 Top–Down Approach

4.5 Requirements for Realizing Semiconductor Nanostructures

4.5.1 Size and Structure Dependence

4.5.2 Uniformity and Density of Nanostructures

4.5.3 Confinement Potential

4.6 Some Specialized Growth Techniques for Nanostructures

4.6.1 Nanostructure Growth on Modified Substrates

4.6.2 Semiconductor Nanostructures Grown on Cleaved-Edge Surfaces

4.6.3 Nanostructures Grown by Inducing Strain

4.7 Electrostatic-Induced Growth

4.8 Thermally Annealed Quantum Wells

4.9 Semiconductor Nanocrystals

5 Different Types of Nanostructures

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Shapes and Structures of Nanomaterials

5.2.1 Size Effect on Shape of Materials

5.2.2 Size Effect on Electronic Properties – Magic Numbers

5.2.3 Nanorods, Nanocones, Nanotetrapods, Nanoparticles

5.2.4 Nanocombs and Nanowalls

5.2.5 Nanotubes, Nanowires, and Nanoislands

5.2.6 Nanoflowers, Nanobrushes, Nanotowers, and Nanocastles

5.3 Quantum Dots

5.4 Semiconductor Nanoparticles

6 Diffusion Kinetics

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Thermodynamics of Diffusion

6.3 Grain Boundary Effect

6.4 Effect of Defects on Diffusion

7 Nanostructured Thin Films and Nanocomposites

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Micro- and Nanoscale Thin-Film Fabrication Techniques

7.3 Optical, Electrical, and Magnetic Properties of Nanostructured Thin Films

7.4 Nanocomposites

7.5 Physical and Optical Properties

7.6 Metal/Dielectric–Organic Nanocomposites

8 Nanoscale Characterization Techniques

8.1 Introduction

8.2 X-Ray Diffraction and Scherrer Method

8.2.1 Calculation of Lattice Parameter

8.2.2 Size/Strain Analysis: Peak Broadening

8.3 Scanning Electron Microscopy

8.3.1 Electron Interaction with Matter

8.3.2 Mechanism Involved in Imaging with SEM

8.4 Transmission Electron Microscopy

8.5 Stoichiometry Study by Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Analysis

8.6 Scanning Probe Microscopy

8.6.1 The Invention

8.6.2 Mechanism of Operation

8.7 Atomic Force Microscopy

8.7.1 The Technique

8.7.2 Applications and Uses of AFM

8.8 Piezoresponse Microscopy

8.9 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

8.10 XANES and XAFS

8.11 Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy

8.12 Diffuse Reflectance Spectra

8.12.1 Spectrometer – For Recording DRS

8.12.2 Measurement of DRS

8.13 Photoluminescence Spectra

8.13.1 Measurement of Emission Spectrum

8.13.2 Measurement of Excitation Spectrum

8.14 Raman Spectroscopy

8.14.1 Working Principle

8.14.2 Raman Spectrometer

8.14.3 Raman Spectroscopy Studies

8.15 DC Magnetization

8.15.1 The SQUID

8.15.2 Vibration Sample Magnetometer

8.16 Electrical Resistivity Measurements

8.17 Theory of Linear Four-Probe Method

8.17.1 Bulk Samples

8.17.2 Thin Sheet

9 Recent Advances in Nanotechnology

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Designing Molecules for Nanoelectronics

9.2.1 Single Electron Phenomenon in Nanotechnology

9.2.2 Single Molecule Electronics

9.3 Advances of Nanotechnology in Materials Science

10 New Trends in Nanoscience and Applications of Nanotechnology in Various Fields

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Applications in Material Science

10.3 Applications in Biology and Medicine

10.3.1 Biocompatibility and Toxicity in Nanoparticles

10.3.2 Cytotoxicity in Nanoparticles

10.3.3 Neurotoxicity in Nanoparticles

10.4 Applications in Surface Science

10.5 Applications in Energy and Environment

10.5.1 Coulomb Blockade Effect

10.6 Applications of Nanostructured Thin Films

10.7 Applications of Quantum Dots

10.8 Carbon Nanotechnology

10.8.1 Characterization of Carbon Allotropes

10.8.2 Synthesis of Diamond

10.8.3 Applications of Nanocrystalline Diamond Films

10.8.4 Graphene

10.8.5 Applications of Carbon Nanotubes

10.9 Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles

10.9.1 Spin-Electronics or Spintronics

10.9.2 Magnetoresistance

10.9.3 Magnetorheological Fluids

10.9.4 Magnetic Nanoparticles for Hyperthermia Application

10.9.5 Solvent Viscosity Effect

Appendix A — Useful Lab Experiments

Appendix B — Useful Tables



Primary Market: B Tech, M Tech 

B Tech:  Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Topics in Engineering Physics


            Introduction to Nanotechnology

            Nanomaterials and Applications


Elements of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Characterization Tools for Nanomaterials

Basics of Nanotechnology and Its Applications

Elements of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

M Tech: Materials Science for Nanotechnology

            Nanoscale Materials and Devices

            Nanostructures & Nanocharacterization Techniques

Secondary Market  - Researchers

Dr. M.S. Ramachandra Rao is a professor in the Department of Physics and head of the “Nanostructured Thin Films and Advanced Materials” group at IIT Madras. His research activities are primarily focused on Physics and applications of nanostructures and nanomaterials.


He was, previously, a research scientist at CNRS, Bellevue, France, visiting fellow at TIFR, Bombay, Alexander von Humboldt fellow at University of Cologne, Germany and visiting faculty at the University Maryland, College Park, USA. He was also a JSPS fellow at the Kyushu University, Japan. He has been the foreign academician since 2008 in the Erasmus Mundus European Master’s program in which IIT Madras has become the non-European partner institute. He is one of the three PIs of the Nano Functional Materials Technology Centre (NFMTC) established at IIT Madras with the DST and industry support.


Prof. Rao has 17 years of teaching experience and has published more than 140 research papers in international journals. He has 10 patents and 4 technology transfers to his credit. Prof. Rao has guided 10 PhD students and 65 undergraduate and postgraduate project students. He is the Fellow of Institute of Physics (FInstP), UK and the editorial board member (from India) of the Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics since 2005. He was also one of the editors of the book ZnO Nanocrystals and Allied Materials published by Springer.


Dr. Shubra Singh is a DST-INSPIRE faculty at the Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai. She has completed her PhD in Physics from the Department of Physics and Nanofunctional Materials Technology Centre (NFMTC), IIT Madras in 2009. Thereafter she worked as a CEFIPRA post doctorate fellow in France followed by a short stint at IISc Bangalore. She was a faculty at IIT Kharagpur before moving to Anna University after receiving the INSPIRE Faculty Award in 2012.