## Details

This book examines essential concepts in Solid-State Physics. The accompanying DVD, containing 40 lectures of approximately an hour each, provides the student with the classroom experience. Animations are also included in the DVD to enable a more visual experience to understand the discussed concepts. Significant effort has been put in to present the material at the right level of detail such that it can be accessed and utilized by undergraduate and postgraduate students with a wide range of backgrounds. A conscious effort has been made to ensure that the level of detail used in the presentation enables students to stay with the content throughout.

Preface

Chapter 1 Introduction – Use and Study of Materials

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Materials and the Engineer

1.3 Materials and a Scientist

1.4 Modeling a Material

1.5 Approach Used in This Book

Chapter 2 Properties of Materials

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Mechanical Properties

2.3 Chemical Properties

2.4 Electrical Properties

2.5 Thermal Properties

2.6 Magnetic Properties

2.7 Optical Properties

2.8 Understanding Material Properties

Chapter 3 Thermal Expansion

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Use of Thermal Expansion / Contraction

3.3 Model for Thermal Expansion

Chapter 4 Electrical Conductivity

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Charge Carriers

4.3 Direct Current Conductivity Measurement

4.4 Alternating Current Conductivity Measurement

4.5 Short Note on Superconductivity

Chapter 5 Free Electron Gas and The Ideal Gas

5.1 Introduction

5.2 The Free Electron Gas

5.3 Packing Fraction in Solids

5.4 Reasons for Caution with the Free Electron Model

5.5 The Kinetic Theory of Gases

Chapter 6 The Drude Model

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Electrical Conductivity

6.3 Thermal Conductivity

6.4 The Wiedemann–Franz Law

6.5 Shortcomings of the Drude Model

Chapter 7 Large Systems, Statistical Mechanics and The Maxwell–Boltzmann Statistics

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Systems with Large Collections of Particles

7.3 Statistical Mechanics

7.4 The Maxwell–Boltzmann Statistics

Chapter 8 A Brief History of Quantum Mechanics; Its Use in the Drude–Sommerfeld Model

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Classical Particles and Quantum Mechanical Particles

8.3 A Brief History of Quantum Mechanics

8.4 The Drude–Sommerfeld Model

Chapter 9 Fermi–Dirac Statistics

9.1 Introduction

9.2 The Fermi–Dirac Statistics

9.3 Features of the Fermi–Dirac Distribution

9.4 Comparing Maxwell–Boltzmann and Fermi–Dirac Distributions

Chapter 10 Anisotropy, Periodic Potential, Confinement and Quantization

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Anisotropy in Crystalline Solids

10.3 Periodic Potential in a Crystalline Solid

10.4 Confinement and Quantization – Waves on a String Analogy

10.5 Confinement and Quantization – Quantum Mechanical Approach

Chapter 11 Density of States, Fermi Energy and The Electronic Contribution to Specific Heat at Constant Volume

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Density of States

11.3 Aspects Associated with Electrons Filling Energy Levels

11.4 Fermi Energy

11.5 Fermi Surface

11.6 Fermi Temperature

11.7 Estimating the Electronic Contribution to Specific Heat at Constant Volume

11.8 Further Improving the Model of the Solid

Chapter 12 The Reciprocal Space

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Defining Reciprocal Space

12.3 Properties of Reciprocal Space

12.4 Diffraction in Reciprocal Space

12.5 The Ewald Sphere

12.6 Crystal Lattices in Reciprocal Space

12.7 Reciprocal Lattice as the Fourier Transform of the Real Lattice

12.8 Another Way to Define or Describe Reciprocal Space

Chapter 13 Wigner–Seitz Cell, Brillouin Zones and The Origin of Bands

13.1 Introduction

13.2 The Wigner–Seitz Cell

13.3 The Brillouin Zone

13.4 Significance of Bragg Planes

13.5 Interaction of Electron Waves with Brillouin Zones

13.6 The Origin of Bands

Chapter 14 Bands, Band Gaps, Free Electron Approximation and Tight Binding Approximation

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Analytical Approach to The Band Structure – Free Electron Approximation

14.3 Band Structure and Types of Materials

14.4 Band Structure – The Tight Binding Approximation

14.5 Effect of Pressure on Band Structure

14.6 Comparison of Free Electron and Tight Binding Approximations

14.7 Conventions Regarding Representing Band Diagrams

Chapter 15 Material Phenomena Explained using Theories Developed

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Semiconductors

15.3 Types of Semiconductors

15.4 Effect of Temperature on Semiconductors

15.5 Optical Properties of Semiconductors

15.6 The Utility of E versus k Diagrams

15.7 Phonons

15.8 Magnetism

15.9 Electron Compounds

Chapter 16 Superconductivity and The Bose–Einstein Statistics

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Superconductivity

16.3 The Meissner Effect

16.4 The BCS Theory

16.5 The Bose–Einstein Statistics

16.6 The Bose–Einstein Condensate

Chapter 17 Physics of Nano-Scale Materials

17.1 Introduction

17.2 The Exciton

17.3 Confining the Exciton

Summary

Practice Questions

Answers

Bibliography

Index

Prathap Haridoss is a Professor in the Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Madras, India. He has been a faculty in the Department for 14 years.His research interests include PEM Fuel Cells, Carbon Nanomaterials including Carbon Nanotubes, Semiconducting Nanomaterials, and recycling printed circuit boards. He has developed a communication device for the speech impaired and a footwear-based device to enable gait analysis by timed mapping of foot contact points. He is also working on developing an exoskeleton to assist differently-abled as well as elderly people.

"Core of a good materials engineer is built around a sound understanding of atomic structure of materials. Since electrons are the primary building blocks of atoms, this course/book introduces students to the idea that the collective behavior of electrons in a crystal affect the physical properties of that material. Given the limited background of undergraduate students in quantum physics, Prof. Haridoss designed the course to first familiarize us with basic laws of quantum mechanics and used those to explain band diagrams. As an undergraduate student I found most of my classes boring, but Prof. Haridoss' course was like a story that made me ask questions which were answered as the course progressed."

**Prashant Kumar, PhD Candidate - Mkhoyan & Tsapatsis lab, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities.**

"Being an undergraduate student of Metallurgy and Materials Science, it is of paramount importance for one to understand the influence and impact of electronic structure on properties that we observe in real day-to-day materials. For example, small changes in the band gap of a material can alter the electronic conductivity by several orders of magnitude, which is crucial in designing our semi-conducting computing circuits! Scientists in the past have come up with models (that are still being perfected as you read this sentence) to understand and explain the different electronic configurations observed in solid state materials, and Prof. Prathap Haridoss' course on the "Physics of Materials" is a very good introductory course in this context, introducing the various models in a very elegant fashion with quantitative emphasis including the statistical distribution functions."

"While Prathap is a fantastic lecturer himself, explaining the difficult concepts in detail and pacing the class in a fashion that is suitable for students who have had little exposure to quantum mechanics before, his course will be greatly aided by a book that introduces the ideas in the same fashion that he does in class. Hence, I am pretty sure this book will be a great value addition for all students (and professionals) who are eager to get a primer on this subject."

**Sai Gautam Gopalakrishnan , Class of 2013, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras.**

"I had taken Prof. Prathap Haridoss' course "Physics of Materials" as a 3rd year B.Tech student at IIT Madras in Fall semester 2004. Typically, he consolidates concepts from various books/sources, and presents what would be most relevant at Bachelor's level. Prof. Haridoss always focused on extracting physical insights, even when teaching hard-core mathematical concepts like Reciprocal lattices, Drude Model, and excerpts from statistical mechanics. An organized text book like this helps develop our physical intuition about material properties to a relatively high level. It will also help link classroom lectures and the students' broad curiosity about how material properties can/cannot be understood by theories of classical and statistical physics."

**Sreeram K. Kalpathy, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engg. National Institute of Technology, Karnataka.**

"Physics of Materials’ has a stark difference to other courses. Instead of discussing the properties of a material, it discussed why a material behaves the way that it does. It covers a wide range of topics from electrical and magnetic properties to thermal and optical properties. The study material as well as the course videos facilitated easy understanding of the wide range of topics. The most interesting part of the course for me was the section on nano-scale materials as it made me get interested in this field and thereby laid the foundation of my final project."

**Pranav Vrat, Sr. Associate, Risk Management, Capital One.**

"The course on ‘Physics of Materials’ was very interesting since it spoke about the behavior of materials and the reasons that cause such behavior. It was something new for us and I thoroughly enjoyed it. The course was structured differently and the course videos and study material certainly aided an easy understanding of the course. The mentoring approach and clear communication from the instructor made it easy and fun to learn. "

**Ashwin Kalkar, IIM, Bangalore.**

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"I took the Physics of Materials course during my undergraduate study. This course relates the electronic structure of materials to their macroscopic electrical, magnetic, and optical properties properties. This is a fairly advanced course requiring understanding of concepts from quantum mechanics and we find a lot of graduate-level books on this subject. Prof. Prathap Haridoss taught this course very lucidly and made it accessible to undergraduate students. I am happy to note that he has written a book to accompany this course. I am sure it will be a comprehensive resource and a much-needed undergraduate-level book on this subject."

**A Durga, Ph.D., Research Scientist - Materials Science, GE Global Research, Bangalore.**