Physics, Chemistry, Biology
(Higher Secondary Stage)
For National Eligibility-cum-EntranceTest (NEET) for admission to MBBS courses across
The Medical Council of India (MCI) recommends the following syllabus for National Eligibility-cum-Entrance Test for admission to MBBS courses across the country (NEETUG) after review of various State syllabi as well as those prepared by CBSE, NCERT and COBSE. This is to establish a uniformity across the country keeping in view therelevance of different areas in medical education.
CONTENTS CLASS XI SYLLABUS
UNIT I: Physical World and Measurement
• Physics: Scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology andsociety.
• Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units,fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracyand precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significantfigures.
• Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.
UNIT II: Kinematics
• Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line; Position-time graph, speed andvelocity. Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneousvelocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time and position-time graphs,for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment).
• Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion.Scalar and vector quantities: Position and displacement vectors, general vectors,general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by areal number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity.
• Unit vectors. Resolution of a vector in a plane-rectangular components.
• Scalar and Vector products of Vectors. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniformvelocity and uniform acceleration- projectile motion. Uniform circular motion.
UNIT III: Laws of Motion
• Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum andNewton’s second law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law ofconservation of linear momentum and its applications.
• Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction,rolling friction, lubrication.
• Dynamics of uniform circular motion. Centripetal force, examples of circularmotion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road).
UNIT IV: Work, Energy and Power
• Work done by a constant force and variable force; kinetic energy, work-energytheorem, power.
• Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces;conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); nonconservativeforces; motion in a vertical circle, elastic and inelastic collisions inone and two dimensions.
UNIT V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body
• Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre ofmass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod.
• Moment of a force,-torque, angular momentum, conservation of angularmomentum with some examples.
• Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equation of rotational motion,comparison of linear and rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius ofgyration. Values of M.I. for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.
UNIT VI: Gravitation
• Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation.Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.
• Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity, orbitalvelocity of a satellite. Geostationary satellites.
UNIT VII: Properties of Bulk Matter
• Elastic behavior, Stress-strain relationship. Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulkmodulus, shear, modulus of rigidity, poisson’s ratio; elastic energy.
• Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline andturbulent flow. Critical velocity, Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.
• Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure,application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.
• Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids, andgases. Anomalous expansion. Specific heat capacity: Cp, Cv- calorimetry;change of state – latent heat.
• Heat transfer- conduction and thermal conductivity, convection and radiation.Qualitative ideas of Black Body Radiation, Wein’s displacement law, and GreenHouse effect.
• Newton’s law of cooling and Stefan’s law.
UNIT VIII: Thermodynamics
• Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law ofThermodynamics). Heat, work and internal energy. First law ofthermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes.
• Second law of the thermodynamics: Reversible and irreversible processes. Heatengines and refrigerators.
UNIT IX: Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory
• Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas.
• Kinetic theory of gases: Assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy andtemperature; degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases; concept of mean free path.
UNIT X: Oscillations and Waves
• Periodic motion-period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodicfunctions. Simple harmonic motion(SHM) and its equation; phase; oscillations ofa spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in SHM –Kinetic and potentialenergies; simple pendulum-derivation of expression for its time period; free,forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance.
• Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion.Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes,fundamental mode and harmonics. Beats. Doppler effect.
CONTENTS OF CLASS XII SYLLABUS
UNIT I: Electrostatics
• Electric charges and their conservation. Coulomb’s law-force between two pointcharges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuouscharge distribution.
• Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electricdipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.
• Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due toinfinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformlycharged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside)
• Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, adipole and system of charges: equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy ofa system of two point charges and of electric diploes in an electrostatic field.
• Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor.Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, combination ofcapacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor withand without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor,Van de Graaff generator.
UNIT II: Current Electricity
• Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity andmobility, and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance,V-I characteristics (liner and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electricalresistivity and conductivity.
• Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallelcombinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.
• Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination ofcells in series and in parallel.• Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.
• Potentiometer-principle and applications to measure potential difference, and forcomparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.
UNIT III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
• Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot-Savart law and itsapplication to current carrying circular loop.
• Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight andtoroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electricfields. Cyclotron.
• Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Forcebetween two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torqueexperienced by a current loop in a magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-itscurrent sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
• Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magneticdipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magneticdipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on amagnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as anequivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magneticelements.
• Para-, dia-and ferro-magnetic substances, with examples.• Electromagnetic and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.
UNIT IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
• Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law,Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance.
• Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage; reactanceand impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit,resonance; power in AC circuits, wattles current.
• AC generator and transformer.
UNIT V: Electromagnetic Waves
• Need for displacement current.
• Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only).Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.
• Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet,x-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.
UNIT VI: Optics
• Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, totalinternal reflection and its applications optical fibres, refraction at sphericalsurfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens-maker’s formula. Magnification, powerof a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror.Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.
• Scattering of light- blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun atsunrise and sunset.
• Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation,correction of eye defects (myopia and hypermetropia) using lenses.
• Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and theirmagnifying powers.
• Wave optics: Wavefront and Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction ofplane wave at a plane surface using wavefronts.
• Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’ principle.
• Interference, Young’s double hole experiment and expression for fringe width,coherent sources and sustained interference of light.
• Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum.
• Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, planepolarized light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarized light and Polaroids.
UNIT VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation
• Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectricequation- particle nature of light.
• Matter waves- wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germerexperiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should beexplained).
UNIT VIII: Atoms and Nuclei
• Alpha- particle scattering experiments; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model,energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus, atomicmasses, isotopes, isobars; isotones.
• Radioactivity- alpha, beta and gamma particles/ rays and their properties decaylaw. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and itsvariation with mass number, nuclear fission and fusion.
UNIT IX: Electronic Devices
• Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only), conductors, insulators andsemiconductors; semiconductor diode- I-V characteristics in forward and reversebias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistoraction, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitterconfiguration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).Transistor as a switch.
CONTENTS OF CLASS XI SYLLABUS
UNIT I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
• General Introduction: Important and scope of chemistry.
• Laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements,atoms and molecules.
• Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentagecomposition and empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.
UNIT II: Structure of Atom
• Atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Concept of shells and subshells, dual natureof matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle,concept of orbital, quantum numbers, shapes of s,p and d orbitals, rules for fillingelectrons in orbitals- Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principles and Hund’srule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completelyfilled orbitals.
UNIT III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
• Modern periodic law and long form of periodic table, periodic trends in propertiesof elements- atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy,electronegativity, valence.
UNIT IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
• Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure,polar character of covalent bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitalsand shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonucleardiatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). Hydrogen bond.
UNIT V: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids
• Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting andboiling points, role of gas laws of elucidating the concept of the molecule,Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour ofgases, empirical derivation of gas equation. Avogadro number, ideal gas equation.Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea), deviation from idealbehaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature.
• Liquid State- Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative ideaonly, no mathematical derivations).
UNIT VI : Thermodynamics
• First law of thermodynamics-internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity andspecific heat, measurement of U and H, Hess’s law of constant heatsummation, enthalpy of : bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization,sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution.
• Introduction of entropy as state function, Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbsenergy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, criteria forequilibrium and spontaneity.
• Third law of thermodynamics- Brief introduction.
UNIT VII: Equilibrium
• Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium,law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium-Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium- ionization of acids and bases, strongand weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acidstrength, concept of pH., Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea)., buffer solutions,Henderson equation, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrativeexamples).
UNIT VIII: Redox Reactions
• Concept of oxidation and oxidation and reduction, redox reactions oxidationnumber, balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electron andchange in oxidation numbers.
UNIT IX: Hydrogen
• Occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydridesionic,covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavywater; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions, uses and structure;
UNIT X: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)
• Group I and group 2 elements:
• General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous propertiesof the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation ofproperties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemicalreactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.
• Preparation and Properties of Some important Compounds:• Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodiumhydrogencarbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium.
• Industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca.
UNIT XI: Some p-Block Elements
• General Introduction to p-Block Elements.
• Group 13 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence,variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalousproperties of first element of the group; Boron, some important compounds:borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium: uses, reactions with acids and alkalies.
• General 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence,variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalousbehaviour of first element. Carbon, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties: uses of some important compounds: oxides.
• Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones,silicates and zeolites, their uses.
UNIT XII: Organic Chemistry- Some Basic Principles and Techniques
• General introduction, methods of purification qualitative and quantitativeanalysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds.
• Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect,resonance and hyper conjugation.
• Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radials, carbocations,carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.
UNIT XIII: Hydrocarbons
• Alkanes- Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physicalproperties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation,combustion and pyrolysis.
• Alkanes-Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism,physical properties, methods of preparation: chemical reactions: addition ofhydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition andperoxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.
• Alkynes-Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties,methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, additionreaction of- hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.
• Aromatic hydrocarbons- Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene; resonance,aromaticity; chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution-Nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation; directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.
UNIT XIV: Environmental Chemistry
• Environmental pollution: Air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions inatmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain ozone and itsreactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and globalwarming-pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative toolfor reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.
CONTENTS OF CLASS XII SYLLABUS
UNIT I: Solid State
• Classification of solids based on different binding forces; molecular, ioniccovalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea),unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of densityof unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unitcell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties, Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators.
UNIT II: Solutions
• Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids,solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties- relativelowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law, elevation of boiling point, depressionof freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses usingcolligative properties abnormal molecular mass. Van Hoff factor.
UNIT III: Electrochemistry
• Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molarconductivity variation of conductivity with concentration, kohlrausch’s Law,electrolysis and Laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell- electrolytic cellsand Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells; corrosion.
UNIT IV: Chemical Kinetics
• Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction;concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate lawand specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero andfirst order reactions); concept of collision theory ( elementary idea, nomathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenious equation.
UNIT V: Surface Chemistry
• Adsorption-physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gaseson solids, catalysis homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity:enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids andsuspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids;properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis,coagulation; emulsions- types of emulsions.
UNIT VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
• Principles and methods of extraction- concentration, oxidation, reductionelectrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction ofaluminium, copper, zinc and iron.
UNIT VII: p- Block Elements
• Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence,oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; preparation andproperties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous- allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCI3, PCI5) and oxoacids (elementary ideaonly).
• Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidationstates, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses; classification of oxides; ozone. Sulphur –allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, preparation, properties anduses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture,properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).
• Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidationstates, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds ofhalogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
• Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence,trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.
UNIT VIII: d and f Block Elements
• General introduction, electronic configuration, characteristics of transition metals,general trends in properties of the first row transition metals- metallic character,ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property,magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation andproperties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
• Lanthanoids- electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity, andlanthanoid contraction and its consequences.
• Actinoids: Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison withlanthanoids.
UNIT IX: Coordination Compounds
• Coordination compounds: Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour,magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclearcoordination compounds, isomerism (structural and stereo) bonding, Werner’stheory VBT, CFT; importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis,biological systems).
UNIT X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
• Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C –X bond, physical and chemicalproperties, mechanism of substitution reactions. Optical rotation.
• Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence ofhalogen for monosubstituted compounds only).
• Uses and environment effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane,tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
UNIT XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
• Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemicalproperties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary andtertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference tomethanol and ethanol.
• Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemicalproperties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses ofphenols.
• Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical propertiesuses.
UNIT XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
• Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods ofpreparation, physical and chemical properties; and mechanism of nucleophilicaddition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.
• Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physicaland chemical properties; uses.
UNIT XIII: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen
• Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physicaland chemical properties, uses, identification of primary secondary and tertiaryamines.
• Cyanides and Isocyanides- will be mentioned at relevant places.
• Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in syntheticorganic chemistry.
UNIT XIV: Biomolecules
• Carbohydrates- Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide (glucoseand fructose), D.L. configuration, oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose),polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen): importance.
• Proteins- Elementary idea of – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins,primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure(qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.
• Hormones- Elementary idea (excluding structure).
• Vitamins- Classification and function.
• Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA
UNIT XV: Polymers
• Classification- Natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition andcondensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural andsynthetic like polyesters, bakelite; rubber, Biodegradable and non-biodegradablepolymers.
UNIT XVI: Chemistry in Everyday Life
• Chemicals in medicines- analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants,antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
• Chemicals in food- preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary ideaof antioxidants.
• Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
CONTENTS OF CLASS XI SYLLABUS
UNIT I: Diversity in Living World
• What is living? ; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life;Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy;Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos,Herbaria, Botanical gardens.
• Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protistaand Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids.
• Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes,Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient anddistinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiospermsclassificationup to class, characteristic features and examples).
• Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level andchordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least twoexamples).
UNIT II: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants
• Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different partsof flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and recemose, flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of thePractical Syllabus).
• Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems(digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect(cockroach). (Brief account only)
UNIT III: Cell Structure and Function
• Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic andeukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cellwall; Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmicreticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra structure andfunction); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
• Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function ofproteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes-types, properties, enzymeaction.
• B Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.
UNIT IV: Plant Physiology
• Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to celltransport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant – water relations– Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport ofwater – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake andtranslocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flowhypothesis; Diffusion of gases (brief mention).
• Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role;Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as amethod to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle,biological nitrogen fixation.
• Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site ofphotosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementaryidea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and noncyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.
• Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations-Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratoryquotient.
• Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth andplant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation andredifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growthregulators-auxin,gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy;Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.
UNIT IV: Human Physiology<