# Transport Phenomena, Revised 2ed (An Indian Adaptation)

ISBN: 9789354244452

932 pages

## Description

Transport Phenomena is a well-established textbook that presents the three topics momentum, heat, and mass transport; and provides an analogous approach to studying these three topics. It is specifically

designed for undergraduate and postgraduate level in the Chemical Engineering curriculum. The

textbook is centered around these topics covering the basics mechanisms, shell balance approach to

develop governing equations, development, and application of equation of change to find the velocity

and/or temperature and/or concentration profile, and macroscopic approach of transport phenomena.

Preface to the Adapted Edition

About the Adapting Authors

Preface

Chapter 0 Introduction to Transport Phenomena

- What are the Transport Phenomena?
- Mechanisms of Transport Phenomena
- Three Levels at Which Transport Phenomena can be Studied
- The Concept of a Continuum
- Conservation Laws: Mass, Momentum, and Energy

Part 1: Momentum Transport

Chapter 1 Viscosity and the Mechanisms of Momentum Transport

- Molecular Momentum Transport
- Convective Momentum Transport
- Pressure and Temperature Dependence of Viscosity
- Molecular Theory of the Viscosity of Gases at Low Density
- Molecular Theory of the Viscosity of Liquids
- Viscosity of Suspensions and Emulsions

Chapter 2 Shell Momentum Balances and Velocity Distributions in Laminar Flow

- Shell Momentum Balances and Boundary Conditions
- Flow of a Falling Film on an Inclined Flat Plate
- Flow Through a Vertical Circular Tube
- Flow Through an Annulus
- Flow of Two Adjacent Immiscible Fluids
- Laminar Slit Flow with Stationary and with a Moving Wall (“Plane Couette Flow”)
- Flow Around a Sphere

Chapter 3 The Equations of Change for Isothermal Systems

- The Equation of Continuity
- The Equation of Motion
- The Equation of Angular Momentum
- The Equations of Change in terms of the Substantial Derivative
- Simplified Forms of the Equation of Motion
- Use of the Equations of Change to Solve Flow Problems
- Dimensional Analysis of the Equations of Change

Chapter 4 Velocity Distributions with More Than One Independent Variable

- Two Dimensional and Time-Dependent Flow of Newtonian Fluids
- Solving Flow Problems Using a Stream Function Vorticity Stream Function and Streamlines
- Flow of Inviscid Fluids by Use of the Velocity Potential
- Flow Near Solid Surfaces by Boundary-Layer Theory

Chapter 5 Velocity Distributions in Turbulent Flow

- Comparisons of Laminar and Turbulent Flows
- Time-Smoothed Equations of Change for Incompressible Fluids
- The Time-Smoothed Velocity Profile Near a Wall
- Empirical Expressions for the Turbulent Momentum Flux
- Turbulent Flow in Ducts
- Turbulent Flow in Jets

Chapter 6 Interphase Transport in Isothermal Systems

- Definition of Friction Factors
- Friction Factors for Flow in Tubes
- Friction Factors for Flow Around Spheres
- Friction Factors for Packed Columns

Chapter 7 Non-Newtonian Liquids

- Examples of the Behavior of Polymeric Liquids
- Rheometry and Material Functions
- Non-Newtonian Viscosity and the Generalized Newtonian Models
- Elasticity and the Linear Viscoelastic Models

Part 2: Energy Transport

Chapter 8 Thermal Conductivity and the Mechanisms of Energy Transport

- Molecular Energy Transport
- Temperature and Pressure Dependence of Thermal Conductivity
- Theory of Thermal Conductivity of Gases at Low Density
- Theory of Thermal Conductivity of Liquids
- Thermal Conductivity of Solids
- Effective Thermal Conductivity of Composite Solids
- Convective Transport of Energy
- Work Associated with Molecular Motions
- Radiative Transport of Energy

Chapter 9 Shell Energy Balances and Temperature Distributions in Solids and Laminar Flow

- Shell Energy Balances; Boundary Conditions
- Heat Conduction through Composite Walls
- Heat Conduction in a Cooling Fin
- Heat Conduction from a Sphere to a Stagnant Fluid
- Heat Conduction with a Nuclear Heat Source
- Heat Conduction with an Electrical Heat Source
- Heat Conduction with a Viscous Heat Source
- Heat Conduction with a Chemical Reaction Heat Source
- Forced Convection
- Free Convection

Chapter 10 The Equations of Change for Nonisothermal Systems

- The Energy Equation
- The Equation of Mechanical Energy
- Special Forms of the Energy Equation
- The Boussinesq Equation of Motion for Forced and Free Convection
- Use of the Equations of Change to Solve Steady-State Problems
- Dimensional Analysis of the Equations of Change for Nonisothermal Systems

Chapter 11 Temperature Distributions with More Than One Independent Variable

- Unsteady Heat Conduction in Solids
- Steady Heat Conduction in Laminar, Incompressible Flow
- Steady Potential Flow of Heat in Solids
- Boundary Layer Theory for Nonisothermal Flow

Chapter 12 Temperature Distributions in Turbulent Flow

- Time-Smoothed Equations of Change for Incompressible Nonisothermal Flow
- The Time-Smoothed Temperature Profile Near a Wall
- Empirical Expressions for the Turbulent Heat Flux Eddy Thermal Conductivity The Mixing-Length Expression of Prandtl and Taylor
- Temperature Distribution for Turbulent Flow in Tubes
- Temperature Distribution for Turbulent Flow in Jets
- Fourier Analysis of Energy Transport in Tube Flow at Large Prandtl Numbers

Chapter 13 Interphase Transport in Nonisothermal Systems

- Definitions of Heat Transfer Coefficients
- Analytical Calculations of Heat Transfer Coefficients for Forced Convection Through Tubes and Slits
- Heat Transfer Coefficients for Forced Convection in Tubes
- Heat Transfer Coefficients for Forced Convection around Submerged Objects
- Heat Transfer Coefficients for Forced Convection through Packed Beds
- Heat Transfer Coefficients for Free and Mixed Convection
- Heat Transfer Coefficients for Condensation of Pure Vapors on Solid Surfaces

Chapter 14 Energy Transport by Radiation

- The Spectrum of Electromagnetic Radiation
- Absorption and Emission at Solid Surfaces

- Planck’s Distribution Law, Wien’s Displacement Law, and the Stefan–Boltzmann Law
- Direct Radiation Between Black Bodies in Vacuo at Different Temperatures
- Radiation Between Nonblack Bodies at Different Temperatures
- Radiant Energy Transport in Absorbing Media

Part 3: Mass Transport

Chapter 15 Diffusivity and the Mechanisms of Mass Transport

- Molecular Mass Transport

- Temperature and Pressure Dependence of Diffusivities
- Theory of Diffusion in Gases at Low Density
- Theory of Diffusion in Binary Liquids
- Theory of Diffusion in Colloidal Suspensions
- Theory of Diffusion of Polymers
- Mass and Molar Transport by Convection
- Summary of Mass and Molar Fluxes
- The Maxwell–Stefan Equations for Multicomponent Diffusion in Gases at Low Density

Chapter 16 Concentration Distributions in Solids and in Laminar Flow

- Shell Mass Balances; Boundary Conditions

- Diffusion Through a Stagnant Gas Film
- Diffusion with a Heterogeneous Chemical Reaction
- Diffusion with a Homogeneous Chemical Reaction
- Diffusion into a Falling Liquid Film (Gas Absorption)
- Diffusion into a Falling Liquid Film (Solid Dissolution)
- Diffusion and Chemical Reaction Inside a Porous Catalyst
- Diffusion in a Three-Component Gas System

Chapter 17 Equations of Change for Multicomponent Systems

- The Equations of Continuity for a Multicomponent Mixture
- Summary of the Multicomponent Equations of Change
- Summary of the Multicomponent Fluxes
- Use of the Equations of Change for Mixtures
- Dimensional Analysis of the Equations of Change

Chapter 18 Concentration Distributions with More Than One Independent Variable

- Time-Dependent Diffusion
- Steady-State Transport in Binary Boundary Layers
- Steady-State Boundary Layer Theory for Flow Around Objects
- Boundary Layer Mass Transport with Complex Interfacial Motion
- “Taylor Dispersion” In Laminar Tube Flow

Chapter 19 Concentration Distributions in Turbulent Flow

- Concentration Fluctuations and the Time-Smoothed Concentration
- Time-Smoothing of the Equation of Continuity of A
- Semi-Empirical Expressions for the Turbulent Mass Flux Eddy Diffusivity
- Enhancement of Mass Transfer by a First-Order Reaction in Turbulent Flow
- Turbulent Mixing and Turbulent Flow with Second-Order Reaction

Chapter 20 Interphase Transport in Nonisothermal Mixtures

- Definition of Transfer Coefficients in One Phase

- Analytical Expressions for Mass Transfer Coefficients
- Correlation of Binary Transfer Coefficients in One Phase
- Definition of Transfer Coefficients in Two Phases
- Mass Transfer and Chemical Reactions
- Combined Heat and Mass Transfer by Free Convection
- Effects of Interfacial Forces on Heat and Mass Transfer
- Transfer Coefficients at High Net Mass Transfer Rates
- Matrix Approximations for Multicomponent Mass Transport

Chapter 21 Macroscopic Balances for Multicomponent Systems

- The Macroscopic Mass Balances

- The Macroscopic Momentum and Angular Momentum Balances
- The Macroscopic Energy Balance
- The Macroscopic Mechanical Energy Balance
- Estimation of the Viscous Loss
- Use of the Macroscopic Balances to Solve Steady-State Problems
- se of the Macroscopic Balances to Solve Unsteady-State Problems

Chapter 22 Other Mechanisms for Mass Transport

- The Equation of Change for Entropy

- The Flux Expressions for Heat and Mass
- Concentration Diffusion and Driving Forces
- Applications of the Generalized Maxwell–Stefan Equations
- Mass Transfer Across Selectively Permeable Membranes
- Mass Transport in Porous Media
- Ion Fluxes and Nernst-Planck Equation

Part 4: Computational Transport Phenomena

Chapter 23 Introduction to Computational Transport Phenomena

- Importance of the Computational Transport Phenomena

- Strategy of the Computational Transport Phenomena
- System Geometry and Discretization
- Solution Methodology
- Software Packages and Illustration Examples

Appendix A: Vector and Tensor Notation

- Vector Operations from a Geometrical Viewpoint

- Vector Operations in Terms of Components
- Tensor Operations in Terms of Components
- Vector and Tensor Differential Operations
- Vector and Tensor Integral Theorems
- Vector and Tensor Algebra in Curvilinear Coordinates
- Differential Operations in Curvilinear Coordinates
- Integral Operations in Curvilinear Coordinates
- Further Comments on Vector–Tensor Notation

Appendix B: The Fluxes and the Equations of Change

- Newton’s Law of Viscosity

- Fourier’s Law of Heat Conduction
- Fick’s (First) Law of Binary Diffusion
- The Equation of Continuity
- The Equation of Motion in Terms of t
- Equation of Motion for a Newtonian Fluid with Constant ρ and μ
- The Dissipation Function Φv for Newtonian Fluids
- The Equation of Energy in Terms of q
- The Equation of Energy for Pure Newtonian Fluids with Constant ρ and k
- The Equation of Continuity for Species α in Terms of ja
- The Equation of Continuity for Species A in Terms of ωA for Constant ρ $AB

Appendix C: Mathematical Topics

- Some Ordinary Differential Equations and their Solutions

- Expansions of Functions in Taylor Series
- Differentiation of Integrals (The Leibniz Formula)
- The Gamma Function
- The Hyperbolic Functions
- The Error Function

Appendix D: The Kinetic Theory of Gases

- The Boltzmann Equation

- The Equations of Change
- The Molecular Expressions for the Fluxes
- The Solution to the Boltzmann Equation
- The Fluxes in Terms of the Transport Properties
- The Transport Properties in Terms of the Intermolecular Forces
- Concluding Comments

Appendix E: Tables for Prediction of Transport Properties

Appendix F: Constants and Conversion Factors

- Mathematical Constants

- Physical Constants
- Conversion Factors

Author Index

Subject Index