Medical Instrumentation, 5ed (An Indian Adaptation): Application and Design

John G. Webster, Amit J. Nimunkar

ISBN: 9789354249150

656 pages

INR 829

Description

This Indian adaptation of the fifth edition of the book builds on the conceptual strength of the original to include new topics and reorganization of some existing for better alignment with Indian curriculum requirements.   Basic concepts are supplemented with new topics on Receiver Operating Characteristics, and Quality Assurance and Quality Improvement. The book offers enhanced coverage of the developing fields of medical instrumentation, such as Biosensors, Electronic Opto-isolators, Biotelemetry, Gamma Cameras, and Microcontrollers – including their hardware, data transfer, and new biomedical applications.

1 Basic Concepts of Medical Instrumentation

1.1 Terminology of Medicine and Medical Devices

1.2 Generalized Medical Instrumentation System

1.3 Alternative Operational Modes

1.4 Medical Measurement Constraints

1.5 Classifications of Biomedical Instruments

1.6 Interfering and Modifying Inputs

1.7 Compensation Techniques

1.8 Basic Concepts of Biostatistics

1.9 Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC)

1.10 Generalized Static Characteristics

1.11 Generalized Dynamic Characteristics

1.12 Design Criteria

1.13 Commercial Medical Instrumentation Development Process

1.14 Quality Assurance and Quality Improvement

1.15 Regulation of Medical Devices

 

2 Amplifiers and Signal Processing

2.1 Ideal Op-Amps

2.2 Inverting Amplifiers

2.3 Noninverting Amplifiers

2.4 Differential Amplifiers

2.5 Instrumentation Amplifier

2.6 Comparators

2.7 Rectifiers

2.8 Logarithmic Amplifiers

2.9 Integrators

2.10 Differentiators

2.11 Electronic Opto-Isolator

2.12 Active Filters

2.13 Frequency Response

2.14 Offset Voltage

2.15 Bias Current

2.16 Input and Output Resistance

2.17 Phase-Sensitive Demodulators

2.18 Timers

 

3 Basic Sensors and Principles

3.1 Displacement Measurements

3.2 Resistive Sensors

3.3 Bridge Circuits

3.4 Impedance Bridge Circuits

3.5 Inductive Sensors

3.6 Capacitive Sensors

3.7 Piezoelectric Sensors

3.8 Accelerometer

3.9 Temperature Measurements

3.10 Thermocouples

3.11 Thermistors

3.12 Radiation Thermometry

3.13 Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensors

3.14 Optical Measurements

3.15 Radiation Sources

3.16 Introduction to Biosensors

3.17 Geometrical and Fiber Optics

3.18 Optical Filters

3.19 Radiation Sensors

3.20 Optical Combinations

 

4 Microcontrollers In Medical Instrumentation

4.1 Introduction to Microcontrollers

4.2 Basics of Embedded Medical System

4.3 Microcontroller Based ECG System-an Example of Embedded Medical System

4.4 Development of Embedded Medical System

4.5 IoT-Based Medical Devices

 

5 The Origin Of Biopotentials

5.1 Electrical Activity of Excitable Cells

5.2 Volume Conductor Fields

5.3 Functional Organization of the Peripheral Nervous System

5.4 The Electroneurogram

5.5 The Electromyogram

5.6 The Electrocardiogram

5.7 The Electroretinogram

5.8 The Electroencephalogram

5.9 The Magnetoencephalogram

 

6 Biopotential Electrodes

6.1 The Electrode–Electrolyte Interface

6.2 Polarization

6.3 Polarizable and Nonpolarizable Electrodes

6.4 Electrode Behavior and Circuit Models

6.5 The Electrode–Skin Interface and Motion Artifact

6.6 Body-Surface Recording Electrodes

6.7 Internal Electrodes

6.8 Electrode Arrays

6.9 Microelectrodes

6.10 Electrodes for Electric Stimulation of Tissue

6.11 Practical Hints in Using Electrodes

 

7 Biopotential Amplifiers

7.1 Basic Requirements

7.2 The Electrocardiograph

7.3 Problems Frequently Encountered

7.4 Transient Protection

7.5 Common-Mode and other Interference-Reduction Circuits

7.6 Amplifiers for other Biopotential Signals

7.7 Example of a Biopotential Preamplifier

7.8 Other Biopotential Signal Processors

7.9 Cardiac Monitors

7.10 Biotelemetry

7.11 Applications of Biotelemetry

 

8 Chemical Biosensors

8.1 Blood-Gas and Acid-Base Physiology

8.2 Electrochemical Sensors

8.3 Chemical Fibrosensors

8.4 Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor (ISFET)

8.5 Immunologically Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor (IMFET)

8.6 Noninvasive Blood-Gas Monitoring

8.7 Blood-Glucose Sensors

8.8 Electronic Noses

8.9 Lab-On-a-Chip

8.10 Summary

 

9 Blood Pressure and Sound

9.1 Direct Measurements

9.2 Harmonic Analysis of Blood Pressure Waveforms

9.3 Dynamic Properties of Pressure-Measurement Systems

9.4 Measurement of System Response

9.5 Effects of System Parameters on Response

9.6 Bandwidth Requirements for Measuring Blood Pressure

9.7 Typical Pressure-Waveform Distortion

9.8 Systems for Measuring Venous Pressure

9.9 Heart Sounds

9.10 Phonocardiography

9.11 Cardiac Catheterization

9.12 Effects of Potential and Kinetic Energy on Pressure Measurements

9.13 Indirect Measurements of Blood Pressure

9.14 Tonometry

 

10 Measurement of Flow and Volume Of Blood

10.1 Indicator-Dilution Method That Uses Continuous Infusion

10.2 Indicator-Dilution Method That Uses Rapid Injection

10.3 Electromagnetic Flowmeters

10.4 Ultrasonic Flowmeters

10.5 Thermal-Convection Velocity Sensors

10.6 Chamber Plethysmography

10.7 Electrical-Impedance Plethysmography

10.8 Photoplethysmography

 

11 Measurements Of The Respiratory System

11.1 Modeling the Respiratory System

11.2 Measurement of Pressure

11.3 Measurement of Gas Flow

11.4 Lung Volume

11.5 Respiratory Plethysmography

11.6 Some Tests of Respiratory Mechanics

11.7 Measurement of Gas Concentration

11.8 Some Tests of Gas Transport

 

12 Clinical Laboratory Instrumentation

12.1 Spectrophotometry

12.2 Automated Chemical Analyzers

12.3 Chromatology

12.4 Electrophoresis

12.5 Hematology

 

13 Medical Imaging Systems

13.1 Information Content of an Image

13.2 Modulation Transfer Function

13.3 Noise-Equivalent Bandwidth

13.4 Medical Imaging System

13.5 Enhancement of Medical Images

13.6 Medical Image Denoising

13.7 Radiography

13.8 Computed Radiography

13.9 Computed Tomography

13.10 MRI Reconstruction Techniques

13.11 Magnetic Resonance Imaging

13.12 Nuclear Medicine

13.13 Gamma Camera

13.14 Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography

13.15 Positron Emission Tomography

13.16 Ultrasonography

13.17 Contrast Agents

 

14 Therapeutic And Prosthetic Devices

14.1 Cardiac Pacemakers and Other Electric Stimulators

14.2 Defibrillators and Cardioverters

14.3 Mechanical Cardiovascular Orthotic and Prosthetic Devices

14.4 Hemodialysis

14.5 Lithotripsy

14.6 Ventilators

14.7 Infant Incubators

14.8 Drug Delivery Devices

14.9 Surgical Instruments

14.10 Therapeutic Applications of the Laser

 

15 Electrical Safety

15.1 Physiological Effects of Electricity

15.2 Important Susceptibility Parameters

15.3 Distribution of Electric Power

15.4 Macroshock Hazards

15.5 Microshock Hazards

15.6 Electrical-Safety Codes and Standards

15.7 Basic Approaches to Protection Against Shock

15.9 Protection: Equipment Design

15.10 Electrical-Safety Analyzers

15.11 Testing the Electric System

15.12 Tests of Electric Appliances

15.13 Testing of Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)

15.13 Conclusion

 

Appendix

A.1 Physical Constants

A.2 International System of Units (SI) Prefixes

A.3 International System of Units

A.4 Abbreviations

A.5 Chemical Elements

Index

 

 

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