Learn How Wiley is Aiding the Global Community in Response to COVID-19



Wiley's Solomons, Fryhle, Synder Organic Chemistry for NEET and other Medical Entrance Examinations, 2021

M S Chouhan

ISBN: 9788126564187

936 pages

INR 829

Description

Organic Chemistry for NEET and other Medical Entrance Examinations is an adaptation of the classic book Solomons' Organic Chemistry, which is widely used by the students all over the world. This adapted version provides more concise content that is structured as per the syllabus requirement. It is a definitive text offering for students preparing for NEET-UG, which replaced the All India Pre Medical test (AIPMT) for admission to MBBS and dental courses across the country. The book derives advantage from the time-tested content of the original book and offers assessment as per the entrance examination requirement.

About the Authors

About the Adapting Author

 

1 Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry

 

Part I: Bonding and Molecular Structure

1.1 Life and the Chemistry of Carbon Compounds

1.2 Chemical Bonds: The Octet Rule

1.3 Isomers: Different Compounds that Have the Same Molecular Formula

1.4 How to Write and Interpret Structural Formulas

1.5 Resonance Theory

1.6 The Structure of Methane and Ethane: 3 Hybridization

1.7 The Structure of Ethene (Ethylene): 2 Hybridization

1.8 The Structure of Ethyne (Acetylene): Hybridization

1.9 How to Predict Molecular Geometry: The Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Model

 

Part II: Families of Carbon Compounds

1.10 Classification of Organic Compounds

1.11 Hydrocarbons: Representative Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes, and Aromatic Compounds

1.12 Functional Groups

1.13 Alkyl Halides or Haloalkanes

1.14 Alcohols and Phenols

1.15 Ethers

1.16 Amines

1.17 Aldehydes and Ketones

1.18 Carboxylic Acids, Esters, and Amides

1.19 Nitriles

1.20 Summary of Important Families of Organic Compounds

1.21 Nomenclature of Organic Compounds

1.22 Polar Covalent Bonds

1.23 Physical Properties and Molecular Structure

 

Part III: An Introduction to Organic Reactions and their Mechanisms

1.24 Acid–Base Reactions

1.25 How to Use Curved Arrows in Illustrating Reactions

1.26 Heterolysis of Bonds to Carbon: Carbocations and Carbanions

1.27 Homolytic Fission of Bonds

1.28 Electron Displacement Effects in Organic Compounds

1.29 The Strength of Brønsted–Lowry Acids and Bases: a and pa

1.30 Relationships between Structure and Acidity Acidity: Carboxylic Acids versus Alcohols

1.32 The Effect of the Solvent on Acidity

1.33 A Mechanism for an Organic Reaction

 

2 Isomerism

2.1 Types of Isomerism

2.2 Geometrical Isomerism

2.3 Chirality and Stereochemistry

2.4 Enantiomers and Chiral Molecules

2.5 Molecules having One Chirality Center are Chiral

2.6 How to Test for Chirality: Planes of Symmetry σ

2.7 Naming Enantiomers: The ,-System

2.8 Properties of Enantiomers: Optical Activity

2.9 The Synthesis of Chiral Molecules

2.10 Molecules with More than One Chirality Center

2.11 Fischer Projection Formulas

2.12 Stereoisomerism of Cyclic Compounds

2.13 Relating Configurations through Reactions in Which No Bonds to the Chirality Center are Broken

2.14 Chiral Molecules that do not Possess a Chirality

2.15 Conformational Isomerism

 

3 Purification and Characterization of Organic

3.1 Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds

3.2 Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds

3.3 Quantitative Analysis

3.4 Determination of Empirical Formula of the Organic Compound

 

4 Alkanes and Cycloalkanes

4.1 Introduction to Alkanes and Cycloalkanes

4.2 Shapes of Alkanes

4.3 How to Name Alkanes and Alkyl Groups: The IUPAC System

4.4 How to Name Cycloalkanes

4.5 Physical Properties of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes

4.6 Isomerism

4.7 Synthesis of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes

4.8 How to Gain Structural Information from Molecular Formulas and the Index of Hydrogen Deficiency

4.9 Chemical Reactions of Alkanes

4.10 Conformations

4.11 The Relative Stabilities of Cycloalkanes: Ring Strain

4.12 Conformations of Cyclohexane: The Chair and the Boat

4.13 Disubstituted Cycloalkanes: Cis–Trans Isomerism

 

5 Alkenes and Alkynes

Part I: Alkenes

5.1 Structure of the Double Bond

5.2 Isomerism

5.3 How to Name Alkenes and Cycloalkenes

5.4 The ()–() System for Designating Alkene Diastereomers

5.5 Relative Stabilities of Alkenes

5.6 Cycloalkenes

5.7 Synthesis of Alkenes by Hydrogenation of Alkynes

5.8 Synthesis of Alkenes via Elimination Reactions

5.9 Carbocation Stability and the Occurrence of Molecular Rearrangements

5.10 Hydrogenation of Alkenes

5.11 Addition Reactions of Alkenes

5.12 Oxidation of Alkenes: Syn 1,2-Dihydroxylation

 

Part II: Alkynes

5.13 Structure of the Triple Bond

5.14 Isomerism

5.15 How to Name Alkynes

5.16 The Acidity of Terminal Alkynes

5.17 Methods of Preparation

5.18 Chemical Reactivity

 

Part III: Conjugated Unsaturated Systems

5.19 The Stability of the Allyl Radical

5.20 The Allyl Cation

5.21 Alkadienes and Polyunsaturated Hydrocarbons

5.22 1,3-Butadiene: Electron Delocalization

5.23 The Stability of Conjugated Dienes

5.24 Allylic Substitution and Allylic Radicals

5.25 Electrophilic Attack on Conjugated Dienes: 1,4-Addition

5.26 The Diels–Alder Reaction: A 1,4-Cycloaddition Reaction of Dienes

 

6 Aromatic Compounds and their Reactions

6.1 The Discovery of Benzene

6.2 Nomenclature of Benzene Derivatives

6.3 Structure of Benzene

6.4 The Thermodynamic Stability of Benzene

6.5 Modern Theories of the Structure of Benzene

6.6 Hückel’s Rule: The 4+ 2π Electron Rule π 6.7 Other Aromatic Compounds

6.8 Preparation of Arenes

6.9 Physical Properties of Arenes

6.10 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions

6.11 A General Mechanism for Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution

6.12 Halogenation of Benzene

6.13 Nitration of Benzene

6.14 Sulfonation of Benzene

6.15 Friedel–Crafts Reactions

6.16 Substituents Can Affect Both the Reactivity of the Ring and the Orientation of the Incoming Group

6.17 How Substituents Affect Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution: A Closer Look

6.18 Reactions of the Side Chain of Alkylbenzenes

6.19 Oxidation Reactions

6.20 Addition Reactions

6.21 Reduction of Aromatic Compounds

6.22 Synthetic Applications

 

7 Alkyl and Aryl Halides

7.1 Classification

Part I: Alkyl Halides (Haloalkanes)

7.2 Nomenclature

7.3 Physical Properties of Alkyl Halides

7.4 Preparation of Alkyl Halides

7.5 Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions of Alkyl Halides

7.6 Elimination Reactions of Alkyl Halides

7.7 Overall Summary–Substitution and Elimination Reactions

7.8 Reaction of Alkyl Halides with Metals

7.9 Reduction of Alkyl Halides to Hydrocarbons

7.10 Polyhalogen Compounds

 

Part II: Aryl Halides (Haloarenes)

7.11 Nomenclature

7.12 Preparation of Aryl Halides

7.13 Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution in Aryl Halides

7.14 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reaction

7.15 Reaction with Metals

 

8 Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

8.1 Structure and Classification

8.2 Structures of Functional Groups

8.3 Nomenclature

8.4 Physical Properties

8.5 Synthesis of Alcohols

8.6 Synthesis of Phenols

8.7 Synthesis of Ethers

8.8 Reactions of Alcohols

8.9 Reactions of Phenols as Acids

8.10 Reactions of Ethers

8.11 Distinction Between 1°, 2°, 3° Alcohols

8.12 Some Commercially Important Alcohols and Ethers

 

9 Aldehydes and Ketones

9.1 Nomenclature of Aldehydes and Ketones

9.2 Structure of the Carbonyl Group

9.3 Physical Properties

9.4 Synthesis of Aldehydes

9.5 Synthesis of Ketones

9.6 Miscellaneous Methods for Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones

9.7 Nucleophilic Addition to the Carbon–Oxygen Double Bond

9.8 The Addition of Alcohols: Hemiacetals and Acetals

9.9 The Addition of Hydrogen Cyanide: Cyanohydrins

9.10 The Addition of Sodium Hydrogen Sulfite

9.11 Addition of Grignard Reagents

9.12 The Addition of Primary and Secondary Amines

9.13 The Addition of Ylides: The Wittig Reaction

9.14 Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones

9.15 Oxidation of Aldehydes and Ketones

9.16 The Acidity of the α Hydrogens of Carbonyl Compounds: Enolate Anions

9.17 Keto and Enol Tautomers

9.18 Reactions via Enols and Enolates a

9.19 Lithium Enolates

9.20 Aldol Reactions: Addition of Enolates and Enols to Aldehydes and Ketones

9.21 Crossed Aldol Condensations

9.22 Cyclizations via Aldol Condensations

9.23 Other Important Reactions

9.24 Summary of Aldehyde and Ketone Reactions

 

10 Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives

10.1 Structure of the Carboxyl Group

10.2 Nomenclature and Physical Properties

10.3 Preparation of Carboxylic Acids

10.4 Chemical Properties of Carboxylic Acids

10.5 Acyl Substitution: Nucleophilic Addition–Elimination at the Acyl Carbon

10.6 Acyl Chlorides

10.7 Carboxylic Acid Anhydrides

10.8 Esters

10.9 Amides

10.10 Decarboxylation of Carboxylic Acids

10.11 Summary of the Reactions of Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives

 

11 Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen

Part I: Amines

11.1 Nomenclature of Amines

11.2 Physical Properties and Structure of Amines

11.3 Preparation of Amines

11.4 Basicity of Amines: Amine Salts

11.5 Reactions of Amines

11.6 Reactions of Amines with Nitrous Acid

11.7 Reactions of Amines with Sulfonyl Chlorides: Test for Amines

11.8 Eliminations Involving Ammonium Compounds

 

Part II: Arenediazonium Salts

11.9 Preparation of Arenediazonium Salts

11.10 Replacement Reactions of Arenediazonium Salts

11.11 Coupling Reactions of Arenediazonium Salts

 

Part III: Cyanides and Isocyanides

11.12 Preparation and Properties of Cyanides and Isocyanides

11.13 Summary of Reactions of Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen

 

12 Biomolecules

Part I: Carbohydrates

12.1 Classification of Carbohydrates

12.2 Monosaccharides

12.3 Disaccharides

12.4 Polysaccharides

12.5 Other Biologically Important Sugars

12.6 Sugars that Contain Nitrogen

 

Part II: Amino Acids and Proteins

12.7 Amino Acids

12.8 Polypeptides and Proteins

12.9 Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structures of Proteins

12.10 Denaturation of Proteins

12.11 Introduction to Enzymes

12.12 Hormones

12.13 Vitamins

 

Part III: Nucleic Acids

12.14 Nucleotides and Nucleosides

12.15 Deoxyribonucleic Acid: DNA

12.16 RNA and Protein Synthesis

 

Part IV: Lipids

12.17 Fatty Acids and Triacylglycerols

12.18 Terpenes and Terpenoids

12.19 Phospholipids and Cell Membranes

12.20 Waxes

 

13 Polymers

13.1 Some Terms Related to Polymers

13.2 Classification of Polymers

13.3 Addition Polymerization or Chain-Growth Polymerization

13.4 Preparation of Some Important Addition Polymers

13.5 Condensation Polymerization or Step-Growth Polymerization

13.6 Natural Rubber

13.7 Synthetic Rubbers

13.8 Molecular Mass of Polymers

13.9 Biodegradable Polymers

13.10 Polymers of Commercial Importance

 

14 Chemistry in Everyday Life

14.1 Drugs and Their Classification

14.2 Drug–Target Interaction

14.3 Therapeutic Action of Different Classes of Drugs

14.4 Chemicals in Food

14.5 Cleansing Agents

 

Solved Examples

Solved Previous Years’ NEET Questions

Additional Objective Questions

Answer Key

Hints and Explanations

NEET 2019 chemistry paper

Index