# Wiley Acing the GATE: Electrical Engineering, 2ed, 2020

ISBN: 9788126598489

## Description

Wiley’s Acing the GATE Examination in Electrical Engineering is intended to be the complete book for those aspiring to compete in the Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) in Electrical Engineering discipline. It comprehensively covers all the topics as prescribed in the latest GATE syllabus in terms of study material, quick reference material and an extensive question bank, complete with solutions. The book offers a number of useful features and the approach is logical concept building rather than only formula based, as offered by the other books generally published in this domain.

Acing the GATE 2018

Syllabus for Electrical Engineering (EE)

SECTION 1: ELECTRIC CIRCUITS

1. Electric Circuits

Circuit Concepts and Laws

Electrical Quantities and Units

Types of Circuits

Current and Voltage Sources

Kirchoff’s Laws

Circuit Analysis Techniques

Equivalent Circuits

Series and Parallel Networks for Resistors, Capacitors and Inductors

Source Transformation

Nodal and Mesh Analysis

Topology

Graph of a Network

Directed and Undirected Graph

Planar and Non-Planar Graph

Concept of Tree and Co-Tree

Incidence Matrix

Link Currents: Tie Set Schedules

Cut Set and Tree Branch Voltages

Interelation between Matrices

Summarised Properties

Network Theorems

Linearity and Superposition

Superposition Theorem

Thevenin’s Theorem

Norton’s Theorem

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

Reciprocity Theorem

Substitution Theorem

Tellengen’s Theorem

Compensation Theorem

Millman’s Theorem

Duality Theorem

Wye(Star)-Delta Transformations

Laplace Transform

Properties of Laplace Transform

Laplace Transform of Periodic Function

Transient Response to DC and AC Networks

Initial and Steady State

DC Transients

AC Transients

Sinusoidal Steady State Analyses Using Phasors

Phasor

Phasor Relationship for Circuit Elements

Magnetically Coupled Circuits

DOT Convention

Series Connection of Coupled Inductors

Parallel Connection of Coupled Coils

Analysis of Multiwinding Coupled Circuits

Ideal Transformer

Resonance

Series Resonance

Parallel Resonance

Filters

Three-Phase Circuits

Balanced Three-Phase Circuits

Unbalanced Three-Phase Circuits

AC Power Analysis

Sinusoidal Signals

Average Power

Effective (RMS) Values of Current and Voltage

Two-Port Network

Types of Network Parameters

Interconnections of Two-Port Network

Important Formulas

Solved Examples

Practice Exercises

Answers to Practice Exercises

Solved GATE Previous Years’ Questions

SECTION 2: ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS

2

Electromagnetic Fields

Coulomb’s Law

Electric Field Intensity

Electric Flux Density

Relation between Electric Flux Density and Electric Field Intensity

Divergence and Curl

Divergence

Curl

Divergence and Stokes’ Theorems

Gauss’ Law

Electric Field and Potential

Due to Point Charge

Due to Line Charge

Due to a Plane (or Infinite Sheet) of Charge

Due to Uniformly Charged Sphere

Due to Different Distributions

Effect of Dielectric Medium on Electric Field

Capacitance

Expression for a Parallel Plate Capacitor

Series and Parallel Combination of Capacitors

Magnetic Flux and Magnetic Field

Biot—Savart Law

Ampere’s Law

Faraday’s Law and Lenz’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction

Faraday’s First Law

Faraday’s Second Law

Derivation of Faraday’s Law

Lenz’s Law

Lorentz Force

Maxwell’s Equations

Magnetic Boundary Conditions

Poynting Vector

Inductance

Series and Parallel Combination of Inductors

Self Inductance

Mutual Inductance

Self and Mutual Inductance for Simple Configurations

Inductance of Solenoid

Inductance of a Coaxial Cable

Magnetic Circuit and Magnetomotive Force

Reluctance

Important Formulas

Solved Examples

Practice Exercises

Answers to Practice Exercises

Solved GATE Previous Years’ Questions

SECTION 3: SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS

3 Signals and Systems

Elementary Signals

Basic Operations of Independent Variables

Classification of Signals

System

Continuous-Time and Discrete-Time Systems

Time Invariant and Time Variant Systems

Linear and Non-Linear Systems

Causal and Non-Causal Systems

Stable and Unstable Systems

Invertible and Non-Invertible Systems

Static and Dynamic Systems

Time Domain Representation of Linear Time Invariant System

Convolution

Differential Equation Representation of LTI System

Difference Equation Representation of LTI System

Linear Time Invariant System with Random Input

Types of LTI Systems

Continuous-Time Fourier Series

Coefficient Values of Fourier Series

Exponential Form of Fourier Series

Discrete-Time Fourier Series

Power Density Spectrum of Periodic Signal

Continuous-Time Fourier Transform

Properties of Continuous-Time Fourier Transform

Discrete-Time Fourier Transform

Properties of Discrete-Time Fourier Transform

Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)

Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)

Sampling Theorem for Continuous-Time Signal

Impulse Train Sampling of a Continuous-Time Signal

Zero-Order Hold Sampling

Laplace Transform

Inverse Laplace Transform

Properties of Laplace Transform

Z-Transform and its Application to the Analysis of LTI System

Region of Convergence

Properties of Z-Transform

Inverse Z-Transform

Realisable LTI Systems

Important Formulas

Solved Examples

Practice Exercises

Answers to Practice Exercises

Solved GATE Previous Years’ Questions

SECTION 4: ELECTRICAL MACHINES

4

Electrical Machines

Transformer

Ideal Transformer

Three-Phase Transformer

Parallel Operations of Transformers

Per Unit System

DC Machines

Commutation

EMF Induction

Type of Connections

DC Generator Characteristics

Parallel Operations of DC Generators

DC Motors

Power Stages in DC Generator and Motor

Testing of DC Machines

Electrical Braking

Three Phase Induction Machines

Rotating Magnetic Field

Equivalent Circuit

Determination of Circuit Parameters

Power Flow Diagram of Induction Machine

Complete Torque−Speed Characteristics

Methods of Starting Three-Phas Induction Motors

Single-Phase Induction Motor

Double-Field Revolving Theory

Equivalent Circuit of Single Phase Induction Machine

Starting Methods for Single Phase Induction Motor

Shaded-Pole Motors

Synchronous Machines

Principle of Operation

Phasor Diagram

Open-Circuit and Short-Circuit Tests

Zero Power Characteristics and Potier Triangle

Generator Voltage Regulation

Two Reaction Theory of Salient-Pole Machines (Blondel’s Two-Reaction Theory)

Synchronous Motor Power Equation

Power Angle Characteristics

Synchronising Power and Synchronising Torque

Power Factor Control

Hunting

Slip Test

Cogging and Crawling

Comparison between Synchronous Motors and Induction Motors

Stepper and Servo Motors

Stepper Motor

Servo Motors

Important Formulas

Solved Examples

Practice Exercises

Answers to Practice Exercises

Solved GATE Previous Years’ Questions

SECTION 5: POWER SYSTEMS

5

Power Systems

Power Generation Concepts

Some Standard Terms used in Power Systems

Transmission Line Parameters

Inductance

Capacitance

Resistance

Transmission Lines

Transmission Line Performance

Classification of Transmission Lines

Combination of Networks

Ferranti Effect

Surge Impedance

AC and DC Transmission Concepts

Comparison of AC and DC Transmission

Insulated Cables

Construction of Cables

Classification of Cables

Dielectric Stress in Cables

Most Economical Size of Conductor

Grading of Cables

Electric Line Insulators

Electrical Stresses on External Insulation

Types of Insulators

Voltage Distribution in Suspension Insulator

Electric Field Distribution

Distribution Systems

Classification of Distribution Systems

AC and DC Distribution Systems

Connection Schemes

PU (Per Unit System)

Bus Admittance Matrix

Gauss—Seidel Method of Load Flow Analysis

Newton—Raphson Method for Load Flow Analysis

Voltage Control

Voltage Control by Reactive Power Injection

Voltage Control using Tap Changing Transformers

Voltage Control by Combination of Tap Changing Transformer and Reactive Power Injection

Frequency Control

Power System Stability Concepts

Power-Angle Characteristics

Swing Equation

Equal-Area Criterion

Power Factor Correction

Power Factor Correction Formula

Symmetrical Components

Symmetrical Components Transformation

Faults

Unsymmetrical Fault Analysis

Symmetrical Fault Analysis

Open Conductor Faults

Relays

Protection

Overcurrent Protection

Distance Protection

Differential Protection

Circuit Breakers

Arc Phenomenon

High Voltage Direct Current Transmission

Comparison of HVAC and HVDC

Corona

Economics of Power Generation

Important Formulas

Solved Examples

Practice Exercises

Answers to Practice Exercises

Solved GATE Previous Years’ Questions

SECTION 6: CONTROL SYSTEMS

6 Control Systems

Fundamentals

Reasons for Building Control Systems

Classification of System

Modeling of Physical Systems

Effects of Negative Feedback

Sensitivity of Control Systems

Model Simplifications using Block Diagram Algebra

Signal-Flow Graphs

Time-Response Analysis

Transient State Behaviour

Steady-State Behaviour

Transient Response of Second-Order Systems

Nature of System Response vs. Location of Closed-Loop Poles

Stability of Control Systems

Bounded Input Bounded Output Stability

Routh—Hurwitz (RH) Stability Criterion

Root Locus Technique

Concepts of Root Locus − Intuitive Example

Rules of Sketching Root Locus

Systems with Time Delay

Root Locus for System with Gain −K

Frequency Response Analysis

Polar Plots

Closed-Loop Poles and Zeros of a Negative Feedback System

Principle of Argument

Nyquist Contour

Nyquist Stability Criterion

Bode Plots

Advantages of Bode Plots

Measures of System Performance in Frequency Domain

Compensators

Proportional (P) Control

Integral (I) Control

Proportional plus Integral (PI) Control

Proportional plus Derivative (PD) Control

Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Control

Lead Compensator

Phase Lag Compensator

Realisation using Op-Amps

State Space Representation

Concept of State

Transforming Differential Equation Representation into State Space Representation

Time Response from State Representation

Obtaining Transfer Function Representation from State Space Representation

State Transition Matrix

Similarity Transformations

Canonical Forms

Important Formulas

Solved Examples

Practice Exercises

Answers to Practice Exercises

Solved GATE Previous Years’ Questions

SECTION 7: ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS

7 Electrical and Electronic Measurements

Classification of Measuring Instruments

Indicating Type Instruments

Types of Indicating Instruments

Permanent Magnet Moving Coil Instruments

Moving Iron Type Instruments

Electrodynamic Type Meters

Measurement of High-Frequency Signals

Bridges and Potentiometers

Measurement of Inductance

Measurement of Capacitance

Measurement of Mutual Inductance

Measurement of Resistance

Measurement of Current and Voltage

Shunts and Multipliers

Sensitivity of Ammeter and Voltmeter

Measurement of Power and Energy

Measurement of Power in AC Circuits

Measurement of Power in a Three-Phase Circuit

Instrument Transformers

Current Transformer

Voltage Transformer

Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT)

Errors in Instrument Transformers

Digital Voltmeters and Multimeters

Cathode Ray Oscilloscope

Working of CRO

CRO Controls

Measurement of Voltage

Measurement of Frequency

Measurement of Phase Difference

Q-Meter

Transducers

Strain Gauge

Velocity Transducers

Temperature Sensing Devices

Transducers for Fluid Flow Measurement

Capacitive Transducer

Piezo-Electric Transducer

Bourdon Tube

Bellows

Error Analysis

Types of Errors

Mean Value and Deviation

Precision and Calibration

Important Formulas

Solved Examples

Practice Exercises

Answers to Practice Exercises

Solved GATE Previous Years’ Questions

SECTION 8A: ANALOG ELECTRONICS

8 Analog Electronics

Semiconductor Physics

Insulators, Semiconductors and Metals

Types of Semiconductors

Donor and Acceptor Impurities

Drift and Diffusion Currents

Mass Action Law

Energy Band Gap

Mobility

Hall Effect

Semiconductor Diodes

The Equilibrium p-n Junction Diode

Operational Characteristics

Voltage-Current (V-I ) Characteristics of a Diode

Diode Resistance

Diode Junction Capacitance

Diode Equivalent Circuits

Breakdown Diodes

Transistors

Bipolar Junction Transistor

Load Line and Modes of Operation

Transistor Configurations

Transistor as Amplifier

Field-Effect Transistor (JFET and MOSFET)

Junction Field Effect Transistors

MOSFETS

Simple Diode Circuits

Connecting Diodes in Series and Parallel

Clippers

Clampers

Rectifier Circuits

Voltage Regulator

Stability and Biasing

Stabilisation

Transistor (BJT) Biasing

Compensation Techniques (Bias Compensation)

Bias Stabilisation in FET (JFET and MOSFET)

Amplifiers

Single Stage Amplifiers

Hybrid Equivalent Model

Multistage Amplifiers

Differential Amplifier

Operational Amplifier

Feedback Amplifier

Power Amplifiers

Frequency Response

Low Frequency Response — BJT Amplifier

Low Frequency Response — FET Amplifier

Miller Effect Capacitance

High Frequency Response — BJT Amplifier

High Frequency Response — FET Amplifier

Multistage Frequency Effects

Active Filters

First-Order Low-Pass Butterworth Filter

Second-Order Low-Pass Butterworth Filter

First-Order High-Pass Butterworth Filter

Second-Order High-Pass Butterworth Filter

Band-Pass Filters

Band-Stop Filter

All-Pass Filter

Oscillators

Types of Oscillators

Sinusoidal Oscillator

Multivibrators

Astable or Free Running Multivibrator

Monostable Multivibrator

Bistable Multivibrator

Schmitt Trigger

IC-555 Timer

Sample and Hold Circuits

Important Formulas

Solved Examples

Practice Exercises

Answers to Practice Exercises

Solved GATE Previous Years’ Questions

SECTION 8B: DIGITAL ELECTRONICS

9 Digital Electronics

Number Systems

Types of Number Systems

Number Conversions

Binary and Hexadecimal Arithmetic

Fixed Precision and Overflow

Representation of Binary Numbers

Binary Codes

Boolean Algebra

Boolean Function

Laws of Boolean Algebra

Simplification of Boolean Function

Logic Gates

Universal Gates

Logic Families

Characteristic Parameters

Resistor-Transistor Logic (RTL)

Diode-Transistor Logic (DTL)

Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL)

Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL) Family

CMOS Logic Family

Combinational Logic Circuits

Arithmetic Combinational Circuits

Multiplexers

Demultiplexers

Decoders and Encoders

Memory

Classification of Memory

Read Only Memory (ROM)

Sequential Logic Circuits

Flip-Flops

Counters

Registers

D/A and A/D Converters

D/A Converters

A/D Converter

Microprocessors

Microprocessor Architecture

Basic Microprocessor Instructions

Assembly Language

8085 Microprocessors

Microprocessor Bus Architecture

Pin Diagram of 8085 Microprocessor

8085 Interrupt Structure

Addressing Modes in 8085

Machine Cycle

Execution of Program by Microprocessor

Memory Interfacing

Memory Structure

Address Decoding and Memory Mapping

Important Formulas

Solved Examples

Practice Exercises

Answers to Practice Exercises

Solved GATE Previous Years’ Questions

SECTION 9: POWER ELECTRONICS

10

Power Electronics

Power Semiconductor Devices

Basic p-n Diode Characteristics

Bipolar Junction Transistor

Construction and Operating Principle of BJTs

Static Characteristics of BJTs

Conduction and Switching Losses of BJT

Paralleling of BJTs and Power Darlingtons

Thyristors

Construction and Operating Principle of Thyristors

Static Characteristics of a Thyristor

Thyristors Turn-ON Methods

Thyristor Protection

TRIAC

Construction and Operating Principle of Triac

Static Characteristics of Triac

Gate Turn-OFF Thyristor (GTO)

Construction and Operating Principle of GTO

Power Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETS)

Construction and Operating Principle of Power MOSFETs

Static Characteristics of a Power MOSFET

Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT)

Construction and Operating Principle of IGBT

Static Characteristics of an IGBT

Performance Parameters

Converters: AC-DC Rectifiers

Single-Phase Uncontrolled Half-Wave Rectifier

Single-Phase Uncontrolled Full-Bridge Rectifier with RLE Load

Single Phase Half-Wave Controlled Rectifier with Resistive Load

Single-Phase Half-Wave Controlled Rectifier with Resistive-Inductive Load

Single-Phase Half-Controlled Converter with RLE Load

Single-Phase Fully-Controlled Bridge Converter with RLE Load

Three-Phase Half-Wave Uncontrolled Rectifier

Three Phase Full-Wave Uncontrolled Bridge Rectifier Feeding RLE Load

Three-Phase Half-Controlled Converter Feeding RLE Load

Three-Phase Fully-Controlled Bridge Converter Feeding RLE Load

DC to DC Conversion

Choppers

Types of DC to DC Converters

Buck or Step-Down Converters

Boost or Step-Up Converters

Buck-Boost Converters

DC Line Commutation

Commutation with Parallel Capacitance Configuration

Commutation by Another Load Carrying Thyristor

Inverters

Voltage Source Inverters

Current Source Inverters

Pulse Width Modulation

Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation

Bidirectional AC to DC Voltage Source Converter

Speed Control of DC Motor Drives

Pulse Width Modulated Converter for DC Drive System

Closed Loop Control of DC Motors

Speed Control of AC Motor Drives

Induction Motor Speed Control

Closed Loop Constant Voltage/Constant Frequency Controller

Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) Converter for AC Drive System

Important Formulas

Solved Examples

Practice Exercises

Answers to Practice Exercises

Solved GATE Previous Years’ Questions

·Solved GATE 2018 Paper

·Solved GATE 2019 Paper

Index