Meat Inspection and Control in the Slaughterhouse

Thimjos Ninios

ISBN: 9788126563609

724 pages

Exclusively distributed by Bio Green Books 

INR 5995

Description

Meat Inspection and Control in the Slaughterhouse is an up-to-date reference book that responds to these changes and reflects the continued importance of meat inspection for the food industry. The contributors to this book are all international experts in the areas of meat inspection and the official controls limited to slaughterhouses, providing a rare insight into the international meat trade. This book will be of importance to students, professionals and members of the research community worldwide who aim to improve standards of meat inspection procedures and food safety.

Contributors

1 Introduction

2 From Farm to Slaughterhouse

 2.1 Scope
2.2 Animal health and welfare
2.3 Transport
2.4 Lairage
2.5 Food chain information

 
3 Ante-Mortem Inspection
3.1 Scope
3.2 Introduction
3.3 Identification of animals
3.4 Abnormalities
3.5 Cleanliness of animals

 3.6 Animal welfare

4 The Slaughter Process
4.1 Scope
4.2 General
4.3 Pigs
4.4 Cattle, sheep and goats
4.5 Poultry

 4.6 Treatment of slaughter by-products

5 Animal Welfare -- Stunning and Bleeding
5.1 Scope

 5.2 Introduction
5.3 Pig
5.4 Cattle, sheep and goats
5.5 Poultry

 5.6 Conclusions

6 Post-Mortem Inspection and Related Anatomy
6.1 Scope
6.2 Introduction
6.3 Anatomy of the head
6.4 Anatomy of viscera
6.5 Anatomy of carcass
6.6 Anatomy of poultry
6.7 Post-mortem inspection

7 Risk-Based Meat Inspection
7.1 Scope
7.2 Introduction
7.3 Risk-based meat inspection
7.4 Visual-only post-mortem meat inspection
7.5 Food chain information (FCI)
7.6 Monitoring of diseases by serology in the slaughterhouse

 7.7 Conclusions

8 Meat Inspection Lesions
8.1 Scope
8.2 Introduction
8.3 Bovines
8.4 Domestic swine
8.5 Small ruminants
8.6 Poultry

9 Sampling and Laboratory Tests
9.1 Scope
9.2 Introduction
9.3 Collecting and packaging samples
9.4 Boiling test
9.5 Measurement of pH
9.6 Bacteriological examination of carcasses
9.7 Zoonotic agents
9.8 Animal diseases
9.9 Chemical residues
9.10 Process and slaughterhouse environment controls

10 Judgment of Meat
10.1 Scope
10.2 Meat inspection
10.3 Evaluation of the meat
10.4 Record keeping in meat inspection

11 Classification of Carcasses
11.1 Scope
11.2 Classification of beef carcasses
11.3 Classification of pig carcasses
11.4 Classification of sheep carcasses
11.5 Classification of poultry carcasses

12 Control, Monitoring and Surveillance of Animal Health and Animal Infectious Diseases at the Slaughterhouse
12.1 Scope
12.2 Background
12.3 Evolution of meat inspection
12.4 Additional purposes of meat inspection
12.5 Some useful concepts
12.6 Quantifying the MOSS of meat inspection
12.7 Purposes of MOSS at meat inspection
12.8 EFSA reviews of meat inspection
12.9 Summary and conclusions

13 Public Health Hazards
A. Biological Hazards
13.1 Scope
13.2 Bacteria
13.3 Viruses
13.4 Parasites
13.5 Prions
13.6 Antimicrobial resistance in meat-borne bacteria

B. Control of Biological Meat-Borne Hazards
13.7 Scope
13.8 Introduction
13.9 Hazard identification
13.10 Prioritization (ranking) of meat-borne hazards
13.11 Carcass meat safety assurance framework

C. Chemical Hazards and their Control
13.12 Scope
13.13 Introduction

 13.14 Residues of veterinary medicine products
13.15 Substances having anabolic effects and unauthorized substances
13.16 Residues of feed additives
13.17 Environmental pollutants
13.18 Analytical chemical methods and their validation

 
14 Meat By-Products
14.1 Scope
14.2 Introduction

 14.3 Advantages of adequate ABP management
14.4 Separation of animal by-products, storage and recommendations on best practices and hygiene requirements
14.5 Identification, transport and marking
14.6 Processing of by-products and methods of treatment and disposing of ABPs
14.7 Materials obtained from animal by-products at the slaughterhouse
14.8 Conclusions

15 The Conversion of Muscle to Meat
15.1 Scope
15.2 Introduction

 15.3 Muscle structure, composition and function
15.4 Post-mortem muscle physiology; rigor mortis and the conversion of muscle to meat
15.5 Major sensory characteristics of meat
15.6 Concluding remarks
 
16 Microbial Contamination During Slaughter
16.1 Scope  
16.2 Introduction
16.3 Contamination of carcasses

 16.4 Microbial contamination during slaughter -- pig slaughtering as an example
16.5 Microbial examinations of red meat carcasses at the end of slaughter
16.6 Conclusions

17 Decontamination of Carcasses
17.1 Scope
17.2 Introduction

 17.3 Antibacterial decontamination treatments for carcasses
17.4 Antibacterial activity of decontamination treatments for carcasses
17.5 Conclusions

18 Cleaning and Disinfection
18.1 Scope
18.2 Background to cleaning and disinfection
18.3 Cleaning in general
18.4 Disinfection in general
18.5 Main soil types and their removal

 18.6 Cleaning procedure
18.7 Improved cleaning possibilities through hygienic design
18.8 Concluding remarks

19 Pest Control
19.1 Scope
19.2 Introduction
19.3 Control plan
19.4 Identification of the pest and inspection
19.5 Control techniques
19.6 Monitoring programme

20 Working Hygiene
20.1 Scope
20.2 Introduction
20.3 Hygienic slaughtering
20.4 Motivation of workers
20.5 Hygiene practice at the slaughter line
20.6 Conclusions

21 Occupational Hazards
21.1 Scope
21.2 Introduction

 21.3 Infections
21.4 Prevention from infections
21.5 Non-infectious occupational hazards and their prevention
21.6 Control of occupational hazards

22 Traceability
22.1 Scope
22.2 Traceability of food in the from-field-to-fork chain
22.3 Responsibility for safety of foods rests with food business operators
22.4 Health and identification mark
22.5 Unauthorized foods and foods posing a risk to food safety
22.6 Summary

23 Own-Check System
A. Structure and Implementation of the Own-Check System
23.1 Scope

23.2 Development of OCS
23.3 Implementation of OCS procedures
23.4 Verification of the OCS

B. Example of an Own-Check System
23.5 Introduction
23.6 Own-check plan
23.7 Own-check implementation
23.8 Own-check documentation
23.9 Division of own check components in SSOPs and SPSs

C. HACCP
23.10 History
23.11 The HACCP principles
23.12 HACCP at the slaughterhouse

24 Official Control
A. Introduction
B. Organization of Official Control
24.1 Scope
24.2 Structure of official organization
24.3 Requirements of the official control organization

C. On-Site Risk-Based Control
24.4 Scope
24.5 Introduction
24.6 On-site risk-based control and own-check system
24.7 Verification of the own-check system

 24.8 Systematic verification in practice
24.9 Practical views to on-site risk-based control in slaughterhouses

D. Control Plan
24.10 Scope
24.11 Why planning of official food control is important?
24.12 Planning food control in a slaughterhouse
24.13 Adjusting the control plan when needed

 E. Approval of Establishments
24.14 Scope  
24.15 Why approve slaughterhouses beforehand?
24.16 Approval process
24.17 Granting approval
24.18 Health mark and identification mark
24.19 Listing of establishments
24.20 Withdrawal of approval

F. Inspection and Sampling
24.21 Scope
24.22 Inspection procedures

 24.23 Challenging task of an inspector
24.24 When, what and how to inspect?

24.25 Preparing for inspection
24.26 Initiating the inspection and interviewing the personnel
24.27 Observing the premises and the facilities
24.28 Evaluating the surfaces
24.29 Observing the hygienic working practices of personnel

 24.30 Evaluating the adequacy of the sanitation procedures
24.31 Inspecting the own-check system
24.32 Official veterinarian's exemplary behaviour

 24.33 Giving feedback on the inspection
24.34 Documentation of official control
24.35 How to ensure the efficacy of inspections?

 
G. Enforcement
24.36 Scope
24.37 Good governance of enforcement measures
24.38 Forms and application of enforcement measures in slaughterhouses
24.39 To advise or to use enforcement measures?

 H. Auditing Official Controls
24.40 Scope
24.41 Background
24.42 Different types of audits
24.43 Why audit official controls? (What is the added value?)
24.44 Auditing processes and systems
24.45 Key principles
24.46 Auditor qualifications
24.47 The audit process
24.48 Concluding remarks

I. Transparency in Official Controls
24.49 Scope
24.50 What is transparency?

 24.51 Good governance
24.52 Objectives of transparency

 24.53 Who needs transparency?
24.54 Benefits of being transparent
24.55 Degrees of transparency
24.56 Obstacles to transparency
24.57 What does this mean for meat inspection?

 24.58 Concluding remarks 626

J. Food Frauds
24.59 Scope
24.60 Definition

 24.61 Slaughter chain and food fraud
24.62 Criminal acts and behaviour
24.63 Organization in the Netherlands to combat food crime
24.64 Conclusion

K. Flexibility and Uniformity of Official Control

 24.65 Scope

24.66 Introduction
24.67 Achieving flexibility by legislation

25 International Trade
25.1 Scope
25.2 International trade
25.3 European Union trade
25.4 Exporting procedures

26 Scientific Risk Assessment -- Basis for Food Legislation
26.1 Scope
26.2 Introduction
26.3 Risk analysis standards are set by international organizations
26.4 Risk analysis is a decision making process
26.5 Risk assessment estimates the level of risk
26.6 Other parts of risk analysis: risk management and risk communication
26.7 Risk assessments of EFSA impact on EU food safety legislation
26.8 Concluding remarks

27 Use of Meat Inspection Data
27.1 Scope
27.2 Use of meat inspection data
27.3 Requirements of collection and recording of meat inspection data

Index