# Applied Solid State Physics

ISBN: 9788126522835

544 pages

eBook also available for institutional users

## Description

The book covers all major aspects of Solid State Physics (Crystal Physics). The approach of the book is unique because it offers thought-provoking ideas about the Physics of Solids, rather than being merely a compilation of research data and statistical figures. The learning design is such that the subject of Crystal Physics is explored in terms of its applicability and not as an abstract collection of concepts. The understanding of the basics is supplemented and supported by a strong mathematical basis and reasoning.

The book is an ideal choice for Ist and IInd year engineering students across India and undergraduate as well as postgraduate students of Physics. Spread over 17 chapters, all important topics have been introduced at an elementary level, which will enable even new students of the subject to gain an insight into the fascinating world of crystals and crystallography. Besides students pursuing M.Phil and Ph.D in crystallography, professionals such as mineralogists, material scientists and solid state chemists will also find the book to be of great practical use.

Chapter-1: Crystals, Lattices, and Symmetry

1.1 Introduction

1.2 The Crystal Lattice

1.3 The Bravais Lattices

1.4 Symmetry in Solids

1.5 Miller Indices

1.6 Point-groups (Crystal-class) Symmetry

1.7 Space Groups

1.8 Crystal structure: Lattice with a Basis

1.9 Some Typical Crystal Structures

Chapter-2: Bonding in Solids

2.1 Introduction

2.2 How do the Atoms in a Solid Interact?

2.3 Ionic Bonding

2.4 Covalent Bonding

2.5 Metallic Bonding

2.6 Comparison between Ionic and Covalent Bonding

2.7 Comparison between Ionic and Metallic Bonding

2.8 Hydrogen bonding: What is it and How it Occurs

2.9 Properties of Hydrogen Bonding

2.10 Van der Waals Bonding

Chapter-3: X-Rays: Concept, Properties and Reciprocal Lattices

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Production of X-rays

3.3 Types of X-ray Tubes

3.4 Absorption of X-rays

3.5 Absorption and Filtering

3.6 Selection of Radiation

3.7 Laue’s Concept of X-ray Diffraction

3.8 Bragg’s Concept of X-ray Diffraction

3.9 Proof of Bragg’s Equation

3.10 Applications of X-rays

3.11 What Makes X-radiation a Dangerous Phenomenon?

3.12 Some Uses of X-ray Diffraction

3.13 The Reciprocal Lattice

3.14 Properties of Reciprocal Lattice

3.15 Bragg’s Law in Reciprocal Space

3.16 Neutron Diffraction

3.17 Electron Diffraction

Chapter-4: Relating Atomic Structure to Some Physical Properties

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Crystallization: General Principle

4.3 Growing Crystals from Solution

4.4 Isomorphs and Polymorphs

4.5 Allotropic Phase Transitions: Changing the Crystal Structure

4.6 Enantiomorphs and Racemates

4.7 Crystal Habit

4.8 Sampling and Crystal Mounting

4.9 Collimation of the Incident X-ray Beam

4.10 Calculating Crystal Density by Floatation Method

Chapter-5: Experimental X-ray Diffraction Techniques

5.1 Introduction

5.2. The Laue Method

5.3 The Divergent-Beam Method

5.4 The Oscillation/Rotation Method

5.5 The Weissenberg Method

5.6 The Precession Method

5.7 Computer-Controlled Single Crystal X-ray Diffractometer

5.8 X-ray Diffraction from a Polycrystalline Material

5.9 Computer-controlled Powder X-ray Diffractometer

Chapter-6: Structure Factor and Fourier Synthesis

6.1 Introduction

6.2 The Atomic Scattering Factor

6.3 The Structure Factor

6.4 Fourier Synthesis

6.5 The Effect of Pseudosymmetry on Structure Factor Distribution

Chapter-7: The Phase Problem and Techniques of X-ray Structure Determination

7.1 Introduction

7.2 The Phase Problem

7.3 Isomorphous Replacement Technique

7.4 The Vector Technique

7.5 The Trial-and-Error Method

7.6 The Direct Methods

7.7 Methods of Structure Refinement

7.8 Derived Results: Geometrical Parameters

Chapter-8: Crystal Imperfections: Their Classifications and Characterization

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Imperfections in Solids

8.3 Line Imperfections

8.4 Surface (Plane) Defects

8.5 Etching techniques for Dislocation Characterization

8.6 Electron Microscope in Materials Characterization

8.7 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

8.8 Transmission Electron Microscope

Chapter-9: Lattice Dynamics and Thermal Properties of Solids

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Lattice (Atomic) Vibrations

9.3 Lattice Vibrations in a One Dimensional Monoatomic chain

9.4 Lattice Vibrations in a Diatomic Linear Chain

9.5 Measurement of Dispersion Relation

9.6 Quantization of Lattice Vibrations: Concept of Phonons

9.7 Thermal Properties of Solids

9.8 Anharmonic Crystal Interactions

9.9 Normal and Umklapp Processes

Chapter-10: An Introduction to Quantum Physics

10.1 Historical Perspective

10.2 Inadequacies of Classic Physics

10.3 Photoelectric Effect

10.4 de Broglie’s Hypothesis of Matter Waves

10.5 Davisson-Germer Experiment

10.6 Waves of Probability

10.7 Mathematical Description of a Wave

10.8 Schrodinger Wave Equation

10.9 Particle in a Box

10.10 The Uncertainty Principle

Chapter-11: The Fermi Surface and Fermi Gas

11.1 Definition

11.2 Construction of Brillouin Zones

11.3 The Fermi Surface in Metals

11.4 Measurement of Fermi Surface Shapes and Dimensions

Chapter-12: Electrons in Solids

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Classical Models: An Overview

12.3 Some General Properties of Metals

12.4 Electrical Conductivity in Metals

12.5 Matthiesen’s Rule

12.6 Electron Motion: Boltzmann Equation and Relaxation Time

12.7 Drude’s Model

12.8 The Quantized Free Electron Theory (Fermi-Dirac Statistics of Electron Gas)

12.9 Specific Heat of a Degenerate Electron Gas

12.10 The Thermal Conduction

12.11 The Wiedemann-Franz Ratio

Chapter-13: The Band Theory of Solids

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Bloch’s Quantum Theory of Electrical Conduction

13.3 Energy Levels in Solids

13.4 Energy Bands in Solids (The Bloch Theorem)

13.5 Electron in a Periodic Potential (The Kronig-Penney Model)

13.6 Electron Velocity (as per Band theory)

13.7 Electron’s Effective Mass (as per Band Theory)

13.8 Classification of Crystalline Solids

Chapter-14: Magnetic Properties of Solids

14.1 Historical Perspective and Review of Some Basics

14.2 The Origin of Permanent Magnetic Dipoles

14.3 The Larmor’s Precession

14.4 Classification of Magnetic Materials

14.5 Diamagnetism (Langevin’s Theory)

14.6 Paramagnetism

14.7 Ferromagnetism

14.8 Origin (Theory) of Domains

14.9 Magnetic Hysteresis

14.10 Soft Magnetic Materials

14.11 Hard Magnetic Materials

Chapter-15: Dielectric Properties

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Dielectric Constant and Susceptibility

15.3 Induced Polarization

15.4 Internal Fields in Solids

15.5 Clausius-Mossotti Relationship

15.6 Sources of Polarizability

15.7 Dielectric Breakdown

15.8 Piezoelectricity

15.9 Ferroelectricity

15.10 Ferroelectrics: Potential Areas of Applications

Chapter-16: Superconductors: Theory and Devices

16.1. Introduction

16.2. Conduction in Semiconductors

16.3. Intrinsic Semiconductors

16.4. Carrier Concentration in Intrinsic Semiconductors

16.5. Extrinsic Semiconductors

16.6. Motion of Carriers in Electric and Magnetic Fields

16.7. Carrier Diffusion: Einstein Relation

16.8. Semiconductor Devices

16.9. The Transistor

Chapter-17: Superconductivity

17.1 Superconductivity - The Phenomenon

17.2 Basic Properties of Superconductors

17.3 Thermodynamic Aspects

17.4 London Phenomenology

17.5 BCS Theory of Superconductivity

17.6 The Josephson Effect

17.7 High Temperature Superconductors

17.8 Some Applications of Superconductivity