# Wiley Acing the GATE: Civil Engineering, 2ed, 2020

ISBN: 9788126598496

## Description

This book acts as a complete reference for aspirants of GATE (CE), covering fundamental aspects of theory before proceeding to relevant questions. The theoretical and numerical concepts in the book are meticulously designed to enhance knowledge and offer valuable insights into critical aspects of the topics. It covers all topics, including new topics introduced in GATE(CE) 2016 syllabus in sufficient depth. The coverage of topics is self-sufficient requiring little to no cross-referencing having sufficient number of questions for practice. Each chapter in the book is important to upgrade the level of preparation, and competency level can be checked through Practice Exercises section.

Preface

About the Authors

Acing the GATE

Syllabus for Civil Engineering (CE)

1 Engineering Mechanics

Introduction

Fundamental Definitions in Mechanics

Basic Concepts

Force and Force System

Effect of Force

Force System: Classification and Definition

Fundamental Principles in Mechanics

Newton’s Three Laws of Motion

Newton’s Law of Gravitation

Parallelogram Law

Principle of Transmissibility

Triangle Law of Forces (Lami’s Theorem)

Static Equilibrium

Application of Statics

Statics of Rigid Bodies: Effect of Non-concurrent Forces in a Plane

Moment of Force about a Point

Varignon’s Theorem

Moment of Couple

Coplanar Parallel and Coplanar Concurrent Force System

Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies and Application to Statics

Types of Supports

Beams

Types of Loads

Truss Analysis

Friction

Types of Friction

Contact Friction on an Inclined Plane

Ladder Friction

Wedge Friction

Rolling Resistance

Belt Friction

Dynamics

Kinematics of Particles

Relationship of Displacement, Velocity and Acceleration

Distance Travelled in the nth Second

Equation of Motion Under Gravity

Relative Motion

Curvilinear Motion

Projectile Motion

Vertical Motion

Newton’s Law and D’Alembert’s Principle

Newton’s Second Law

D’Alembert’s Principle

Work, Energy and Power

Work-Energy Principle

Conservative Force

Work Done by Various Forces

Impact of Elastic Bodies

Types of Impact

Coefficient of Restitution

Period of Restitution and Period of Deformation

Method of Analysis

Direct Central Impact (Two Bodies)

Oblique Central Impact (Two Bodies)

Loss of Kinetic Energy During Impact

Center of Mass and Mass Moment of Inertia

Principle of Virtual Work

Applications

Important Formulas

Solved Examples

Solved GATE Previous Years' Questions

Practice Exercises

Answers to Practice Exercises

2 Solid Mechanics

Introduction

Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagram

Mechanics of Deformable Bodies

Generalised Hooke’s Law

Relationship between Elastic Constants

Notion of Principal Stress

Evaluation of Principal Stress

Theories of Failure

Maximum Principal Stress Theory

Bending (Flexure) Theory

Shear Theory or Shearing Stresses

Derivation

Computation of QAverage

Shear Centre

Torsion Theory

Comparison of Torsional Shear Stress between Solid and Hollow Circular Shaft

Deflections

Axial/Temperature Stress

Deflection of Beams

Columns

Types of Columns

Critical Loads and Buckling

Combined Stresses (Direct and Bending Stresses)

Unsymmetric Bending

Inclination of Neutral Axis to Moment M

Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels

Cylindrical Vessels

Important Formulas

Solved Examples

Solved GATE Previous Years’ Questions

Practice Exercises

Answers to Practice Exercises

3 Structural Analysis

Introduction

Analysis of Framed Structures

Analysis of Statically Determinate Structures

Energy Methods

Virtual Work Methods

Theorems in Energy Methods

Points to Remember

Principle of Superposition

Analysis of Plane Truss

Influence Line Diagram

Influence Line Diagram for Plane Truss

Influence Line Diagram for Beams

Influence Line for Reaction RA

Influence Line for Shear Force at Section X-X

Influence Line Diagram for B.M. at Section X-X

Analysis of Three-Hinged Arches

Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures

Estimation of Reaction for Statically Indeterminate Structures

Slope Deflection Method

Moment Distribution Method

Absolute and Relative Stiffness of Member

Joint Distribution Factor

Two-Hinged Arches

Matrix Analysis of Structures

Coordinate System

Element Stiffness Matrix and Flexibility Matrix

Important Formulas

Solved Examples

Solved GATE Previous Years’ Questions

Practice Exercises

Answers to Practice Exercises

4 Construction Materials and Management

Introduction

Construction Materials

Structural Steel

Grades of Concrete and Characteristic Strength

Bricks and Mortar

Wood (Timber)

Asphalt

Construction Management

Types of Construction Projects

Tendering and Contracting

Estimation

Project Planning and Network Analysis

Methodology of CPM/PERT

Solved Examples

Solved GATE Previous Years' Questions

Practice Exercises

Answers to Practice Exercises

5 Concrete Structures

Introduction

Concrete Technology

Tests on Cement and Concrete

Concrete Mix Design

Objectives of Concrete Mix Design

Types of Mix Design

Design of Concrete Structures

Working Stress Method

Limit State Design

Characteristic Strength

Permissible Stresses in Concrete (IS:456-1978)

Permissible Stresses in Steel

Permissible Shear Stresses in Concrete (tc) Versus % Reinforcement

Design Strength

Loads

Comparison of Working Stress and Limit State Methods

Analysis in Working Stress Method

Neutral Axis of Beam Section

Moment of Resistance

Balanced, Under-reinforced and Over-reinforced Section

Steps Involved in Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Analysis in Limit State Method

Stress—Strain Diagram for Limit State Design

Stress—Block Parameters

Design for Shear, Bond and Torsion

Design of Structural Elements

Design of Singly Reinforced Beams

Design of Double Reinforced Beams

Design of T and L Beams

Stress Block and Neutral Axis for T Beam

Moment of Resistance for T Beams

Design of Columns

Axially Loaded Columns

Short Columns

Eccentrically Loaded Columns

Design Specifications of Column Reinforcement (IS:456-2000)

Interaction Curves for Column Design

Design of Slabs

One-Way Slab

Two-Way Slabs

Prestressed Concrete

Basic Definitions

Need for High Grade Concrete and Steel

Advantages and Disadvantages of Prestressed Concrete

Comparison between Pre-tension and Post-tension Members

Analysis of Prestress Members

Stress Distribution due to Prestressing

Losses in Prestress

Analysis of Flexural Members

Force Analysis or Force Based Concept

Important Formulas

Solved Examples

Solved GATE Previous Years’ Questions

Practice Exercises

Answers to Practice Exercises

6 Steel Structures

Introduction

Design Philosophy

Working/Permissible Stresses

Limit State Method

Riveted Joints

Welded Connections

Design of Structural Members

Design of Compression Members

Design of Axially Loaded Compression Member

Types of Sections

Design of Built-up Columns

Design Consideration

Battens

Eccentrically Loaded Columns

Column Bases and Footings

Design of Tension Members

Permissible Stresses in Tension Members

Axially Loaded Tension Members

Steps Involved in Design of Tension Members

Design of Beams

Types of Beam Sections

Stability of Beams

Stresses in Beams

Deformation of Beams

Beam Deflection

Web Buckling

Web Crippling

Design of Built-Up Beams

Design of Connections

Shear Connections: Riveted

Moment Resistant Connections

Plastic Analysis

Plastic Analysis of Beams

Plastic Hinge

Plastic vs. Elastic Designs

Important Formulas

Solved Examples (Working Stress Method)

Solved GATE Previous Years' Questions

Practice Exercises

Answers to Practice Exercises

7 Geotechnical Engineering

Introduction

Classification of Soils

Classification based on Mode of Transportation

Classification based on Mode of Deposition

Indian Standard Classification (ISC) System

Physical Properties of Soil

Volumetric Relationships

Mass Relationship

Volume—Mass Relationship

Volume—Weight Relationship

Specific Gravity of Solids

Functional Relationship

Particle Size and Stability Chart

Plasticity Characteristics of Soil

Consistency Limits

Index Properties

Sensitivity

Thixotropy

Activity of Soils

Permeability

Hydraulic Head and Bernoulli’s Equation

Darcy’s Law

Factor Affecting the Coefficient of Permeability

Effective Coefficient of Permeability for Stratified Soils

Determination of Coefficient Permeability in the Laboratory

Seepage Analysis

Derivation of Laplace Equation

Stream Function

Potential Function

Characteristics of Flow Net

Uses of Flow Net

Effective Stress Principle

Pore Water Pressure

Effective Stress in Soil Mass in Unsaturated Condition

Effective Stress in Soil Mass under Hydrodynamic Condition

Piping

Earth Pressure Theories

Rankine’s Theory — Active and Passive Case

Vertical Stress Distribution

Vertical Stresses due to Concentrated load

Vertical Stress Distribution on Horizontal Plane

Vertical Stress Distribution on Vertical Plane

Vertical Stresses due to Line Load

Vertical Stresses Under a Circular Area

Approximate Methods

Contact Pressure Distribution on Soils for Different Type of Footings

Contact Pressure on Saturated Clay

Contact Pressure on Sand

Stability of Slopes

Factors Leading to Failure of Slopes

Different Factors of Safety Incorporated in Stability of Slopes

Types of Slope Failure

Stability Analysis of Finite Slope

Stability of Infinite Slope of Cohesionless Soil

Wedge Failure

Culman’s Method

Friction Circle Method

Effective Stress Analysis by Bishop’s Method

Stability Charts

Compaction

Objectives of Compaction

Compaction Theory

Tests for Compaction

Compaction of Sands

Factors Affecting Compaction

Field Compaction

Compression and Consolidation

Consolidation

Consolidation Stages

Settlement Under a Constant Load and Void Ratio

Coefficient of Compressibility (av)

Void Ratio vs. Effective Stress Plot

Void Ratio and log

Plot

s

Compression Index (Cc)

Types of Consolidated Clays

Terzaghi’s Theory

Shear Strength of Soil

Methods of Shear Strength Testing

Soil Investigation

Types of Samplers

Penetration Tests

Foundation

Types of Foundation

Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundation

Rankine’s Analysis

Terzaghi’s Analysis

Types of Shear Failure

Meyerhoff’s Bearing Capacity Theories

Ultimate Bearing Capacity in Case of Local Shear Failure

Effect of Water Table on Bearing Capacity of Soil

Bearing Capacity of Square Rectangular and Circular Footing

Skempton’s Theory of Bearing Capacity

Settlement of Shallow Foundation

Allowable Soil Pressure for Cohesionless Soil

Plate Load Test

Deep Foundation—Pile Foundation

Bearing Capacity of Piles

Classification of Piles

Pile Capacity

Bearing Capacity of Pile Group

Efficiency of Pile and Group of Piles

Important Formulas

Solved Examples

Solved GATE Previous Years’ Questions

Practice Exercises

Answers to Practice Exercises

8 Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics

Introduction

Properties of Fluids

Viscosity

Thermodynamic Properties of Fluids

Surface Tension and Capillarity

Hydrostatics: Basic Definitions

Fluid Pressure

Pascal’s Law

Pressure Variation in Fluid at Rest

Pressure Measurement

Hydrostatics: Forces

Fluid Pressure Normal to Surface

Forces on Floating and Submerged Bodies

Conditions of Stability

Fluid Flow

Discharge and Mean Velocity

Momentum and Fluid Flow

Euler’s Equation of Motion along a Streamline

Practical Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation

Orifices and Mouthpieces

Hydraulic Coefficients

Mouthpiece

Notches and Weirs

Notches

Weir

Two-Dimensional Flow

Streamlines and Stream Functions

Streamline

Flow Nets

Dimensional Analysis

Dimensional Analysis - Indicial Method

Dimensional Analysis - Group Method

Hydraulic Similitude

Geometric Similarity

Kinematic Similarity

Dynamic Similarity

Flow through Pipes

Incompressible Laminar Flow of Circular Cross-Section Pipes

Boundary Layer

Conditions for Separation of Boundary Layer

Forces on Submerged Bodies

Drag Force

Lift Force

Pressure Drag and Friction Drag

Open Channel Flow

Discharge through Open Channel

Non-Uniform Flow through Open Channels

Specific Energy

Critical Depth

Critical Velocity

Minimum Specific Energy

Condition for Maximum Discharge for Minimum Specific Energy

Hydraulic Jump

Assumptions

Impact of Jets

Basics of Hydraulic Machines

Common Definitions

Velocity Triangles

Important Formulas

Solved Examples

Solved GATE Previous Years’ Questions

Practice Exercises

Answers to Practice Exercises

9 Hydrology

Introduction

Hydrologic Cycle

Water Budget Equation

Precipitation

Weather Systems for Precipitation

Measurement of Precipitation

Presentation of Rainfall Data

Stage of River

Evaporation

Dalton’s Law of Evaporation

Estimation of Evaporation

Reservoir Evaporation

Reducing Evaporation Losses

Evapotranspiration

Measurement of Evapotranspiration

Methods of Stream Flow Measurement

Interception

Infiltration

Infiltration Capacity

Infiltration Indices

Depression Storage

Runoff

Runoff Modelling

Hydrographs

Derivation of Unit Hydrograph

Methods to Develop Unit Hydrographs of Different Durations

Estimating Design Flood

Choice of Design Flood

Method of Estimating Design Flood

Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph

Nash’s Model

Clarke’s Model

Flood Routing Methods

Distributed/Hydraulic Routing

Lumped/Hydrologic Flood Routing

Equations Used in Routing

Muskingum Method for Routing

Types of Reservoirs

Size of Reservoirs

Groundwater Flow

Aquifers

Wells

Steady State in Well Hydraulics

Important Formulas

Solved Examples

Solved GATE Previous Years’ Questions

Practice Exercises

Answers to Practice Exercises

10 Irrigation

Introduction

Types of Irrigation

Methods of Irrigation

Free Flooding Method

Flooding by Contour Laterals

Border Crop Flooding Method

Check Flooding

Ring Basin Flooding

Zig—Zag Method

Furrow Method

Contour Farming

Sub-Surface Irrigation

Sprinkler Irrigation

Water Requirement of Crops

Classes of Soil Water

Soil Moisture Constants

Limiting Soil Moisture Conditions

Depth and Frequency of Irrigation

Principal Crops and Crop Seasons

Agricultural Classification

Classification based on Crop Seasons

Classification based on Irrigation Requirement

Duty and Delta

Relation between Duty (D) and Delta (∆)

Factors Affecting Duty

Some Important Definitions

Consumptive Use of Water (Evapo-Transpiration)

Irrigation Efficiencies

Irrigation Requirement of Crops

Crop Rotation

Spillways

Straight Drop Spillway

Side Channel Spillway

Chute or Trough Spillway

Tunnel Spillway

Shaft Spillway

Siphon Spillways

Diversion Headwork

Wier and Barrage

Divide Wall (Groyne)

Fish Ladder

Canal Head Regulator

Under Sluices

Irrigation Channels

Design of Alluvial Channels

Kennedy’s Theory

Lacey’s Regime Equations

Comparison of Kennedy’s and Lacey’s Theory

Water Logging and Drainage

Degree of Waterlogging

Canal Regulation Works

Cross Drainage Works

Important Formulas

Solved Examples

Solved GATE Previous Years’ Questions

Practice Exercises

Answers to Practice Exercises

11 Environmental Engineering

Introduction

Sources of Water

Water Quality or Characteristics of Water

Physical Characteristics

Chemical Characteristics

Water Quantity Estimation

Water Consumption Rate

Population Forecasting Method

Water Intake Structure

Factors Governing Location of Intake

Design Considerations

Types of Intake

Water Distribution Systems

Requirements of Good Distribution System

Layout of Distribution Networks

Distribution Reservoirs

Flow in Pipe Network—Hardy-Cross Method

Water Treatment

Unit Processes and Operations

Wastewater Quantity Estimation

Types of Wastewater — Domestic, Industrial and Storm Water

Characteristics of Sewage

Physical Characteristics

Chemical Characteristics

Biological Characteristics of Sewage

Wastewater Treatment

Sanitation and Sewerage System

Unit Processes and Operations for Wastewater Treatment

Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Wastewater Treatment

Effluent Sludge Disposal

Types of Solid Wastes

Municipal Solid Waste

Characteristics of Solid Waste

Collection and Transportation of Solid Waste

Disposal of Municipal Solid Wastes

Pyrolysis

Types of Pollutants

Primary Air Pollutants

Secondary Air Pollutants

Units of Measure of Air Pollutants

Air Pollution Meteorology

Relations between ELR and DALR

Inversions

Types of Plumes

Effects of Air Pollutants on Human Health

National Ambient Air Quality Standards

Air Pollution Control

Properties of Sound Waves

Propagation of Sound Waves

Sound Power and Intensity

Sound Levels

Noise Reduction Concept

Important Formulas

Solved Examples

Solved GATE Previous Years’ Questions

Practice Exercises

Answers to Practice Exercises

12 Transportation Engineering

Introduction

Highway Engineering in India

Classification of Roads

Highway Alignment and Engineering Surveys

Highway Alignment

Factors Controlling Alignment

Engineering Surveys

Geometric Design of Highways

Cross-Sectional Elements

Sight Distance

Horizontal Alignment

Vertical Alignment

Geometric Design of Railway Track

Necessity for Geometric Design

Gradients

Curvature of the Track

Geometric Design of Airports

Runways

Runway Length

Taxiways

Pavement Design

Flexible Pavement

Highway Materials

Design of Flexible Pavement

Rigid Pavements

Distresses in Pavement

Types of Intersections and Channelisation

Traffic Engineering

Traffic Stream Parameters

Models of Traffic Flow

Poisson Model

Traffic Operations

Traffic Studies

Level of Service of Rural Highways and Urban Roads

Statistical Analysis of Traffic Data

Speed Studies

Volume Studies

Important Formulas

Solved Examples

Solved GATE Previous Years' Questions

Practice Exercises

Answers to Practice Exercises

13 Geomatics Engineering

Introduction

Types of Surveying

Specialized Surveying

Units of Measurement and Conversion Factors

Measuring Horizontal Distances

Errors in Measuring Horizontal Distance

Trigonometric Vertical Measurement

Compass Surveying

Terminology in Compass Surveying

Instruments Used in Compass Surveying

Traversing

Measure of Bearing

Offset

Contouring

Contour Interval

Errors

Precision and Accuracy

Slope Correction

Errors and their Nature

Limits for Acceptable Errors in Surveying

Levelling

Basic Definitions

Terminology

Levelling Instrument

Types of Levelling

Differential Levelling

Errors in Levelling

Curves

Simple Circular Curve

Compound or Reverse Curve

Transition Curve

Photogrammetry

Remote Sensing

Electromagnetic Radiation used in Remote Sensing

Sensors in Remote Sensing

Platforms

Geosynchronous and Geostationary Orbit

Data Analysis

Global Positioning System (GPS)

Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

Data Types in GIS

Data Analysis and Modelling

Important Formulas

Solved Examples

Solved GATE Previous Years’ Questions

Practice Exercises

Answers to Practice Exercises

List of Codes

·Solved GATE 2018 Paper

·Solved GATE 2019 Paper

Index