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Research Methods for Business, 8ed, An Indian Adaptation: A Skill - Building Approach

Roger Bougie, Uma Sekaran, Mala Srivastava

ISBN: 9789354244773

528 pages

INR 649

Description

Research Methods for Business explains the principles and practices of using a systematic, organized method for solving problematic issues in business organizations. Designed to help students view research from the perspective of management, this popular textbook guides students through the entire business research process. Organized into six main themes—Introduction, Defining the Management and the Research Problem, Theory, Collecting Information, Drawing Conclusions, and Writing and Presenting the Research Report—the text enables students to develop the skills and knowledge required to successfully create, conduct, and analyse a research project.

    1. 1 Introduction to Research
  • Introduction
  • Business Research
  • Research and the Manager
  • Types of Business Research: Applied and Basic
  • Applied Research
  • Basic or Fundamental Research
  • Managers and Research
  • Why Managers Need to Know about Research
  • The Manager and the Consultant–Researcher
  • Internal Consultants/Researchers
  • Advantages of Internal Consultants/Researchers
  • Disadvantages of Internal Consultants/Researchers
  • Knowledge about Research and Managerial Effectiveness
  • Ethics and Business Research

 

2 The Scientific Approach and Alternative Approaches to Investigation

  • Introduction
  • The Hallmarks of Scientific Research
  • Purposiveness
  • Rigour
  • Testability
  • Replicability
  • Precision and Confidence
  • Objectivity
  • Generalizability
  • Parsimony
  • The Hypothetico-Deductive
  • Method
  • The Seven-Step Process in the Hypothetico-Deductive Method
  • Review of the Hypothetico-Deductive Method
  • Alternative Approaches to Research
  • Positivism
  • Constructionism
  • Critical Realism
  • Pragmatism
  • A Pragmatic Approach to Research
  • Research in Organizations
  • ‘Fixing Situations That Are Broken’; Organizational Change
  • Creating New Business Opportunities
  • The Initial Stages: The Manager Starts Exploring
  • The Initial Stages: Briefing the Researcher
  • The Preliminary Stages of the Research Process: Exploration and (in Some Cases) Diagnoses
  • The Preliminary Stages of the Research Process: A First Review of the Literature
  • The Start of the Research Process: Developing a Research Proposal
  • Finding Solutions to the Problem: The Planning, Collection and Analyses of Data
  • Providing Feedback to the Client Organization
  • The Final Stages: The Manager Makes a Decision and Acts
  • Looking for Decision Opportunities or Areas for Improvement
  • The First Step of the Research Process: Exploration
  • Fixing Situations That Are Broken
  • The First Step of the Research Process: Exploration
  • The Second Step of the Research Process: Diagnosis
  • The Constraints or Preconditions That Should Be Taken into Account
  • Different Types of Problems and Solutions to These Problems
  • Providing Feedback to the Client Organization
  • Managerial Implications
  • The Management Problem
  • Defining the Research Problem
  • What Makes a Good Problem Statement?
  • Basic Types of Questions: Exploratory Descriptive and Causal Questions
  • The Research Proposal
  • Managerial Consequences
  • Ethical Issues in the Preliminary Stages of Investigation

 

3 The Theory Building

  • Introduction
  • How to Approach the Literature Review
  • Data Sources
  • Searching for Literature
  • Evaluating the Literature
  • Documenting the Literature Review
  • Ethical Issues
  • Appendix: Some Online Resources Useful for Business Research
  • Online Databases
  • On the Web
  • APA Format for Referencing Relevant Articles
  • Specimen Format for Citing Different Types of References (APA Format)
  • Referencing Non-print Media
  • Referencing and Quotation in the Literature Review Section
  • Quotations in Text

 

4 Theoretical Framework and Hypothesis Development

  • Introduction
  • The Need for a Theoretical Framework
  • Variables
  • Dependent Variable
  • Independent Variable
  • Moderating Variable
  • Mediating Variable
  • How Theory Is Generated
  • The Components of the Theoretical Framework
  • Hypothesis Development
  • Definition of a Hypothesis
  • Statement of Hypotheses: Formats
  • Directional and Nondirectional Hypotheses
  • Null and Alternate Hypotheses
  • Managerial Implications

 

5 Research Design

  • Introduction
  • The Research Design
  • Elements of Research Design
  • Research Strategies
  • Extent of Researcher Interference with the Study
  • Study Setting: Contrived and Non contrived
  • Unit of Analysis: Individuals, Dyads, Groups, Organizations, Cultures
  • Time Horizon: Cross-Sectional versus Longitudinal Studies
  • Mixed Methods
  • Trade-offs and Compromises
  • Managerial Implications
  • Summary
  • Discussion Questions

 

6 Data Collection: Interviews and Observations

  • Introduction
  • Primary Data Collection Methods
  • Interviews
  • Unstructured and Structured Interviews
  • Training Interviewers
  • Some Tips to Follow When Interviewing
  • Face-to-Face and Telephone Interviews
  • Additional Sources of Bias in Interview Data
  • Computer-assisted Interviewing
  • CATI and CAPI
  • Group Interviews
  • Advantages and Disadvantages of Interviews
  • Definition and Purpose of Observation
  • Four Key Dimensions That Characterize the Type of Observation
  • Controlled versus Uncontrolled Observational Studies
  • Participant versus Non-Participant Observation
  • Structured versus Unstructured Observational Studies
  • Concealed versus Unconcealed Observation
  • Two Important Approaches to Observation

 

7 Questionnaire Design and Implementation

  • Introduction
  • Types of Questionnaires
  • Guidelines for Questionnaire Design
  • Principles of Wording
  • General Appearance or ‘Getup’ of the Questionnaire
  • Review of Questionnaire Design
  • Pre-testing of Structured Questions
  • Electronic Questionnaire and Survey Design
  • International Dimensions of Surveys
  • Review of the Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Data Collection Methods and When to Use Each
  • Multimethod of Data Collection
  • Managerial Implications

 

8 Measurement

  • Introduction
  • How Variables Are Measured
  • Operational Definition (Operationalization)
  • Operationalization: Dimensions and Elements
  • Operationalizing the (Multidimensional) Construct of Achievement Motivation
  • What Operationalization Is Not
  • Review of Operationalization
  • International Dimensions of Operationalization
  • Four Types of Scales
  • Rating Scales
  • Ranking Scales
  • International Dimensions of Scaling
  • Goodness of Measures
  • Reflective versus Formative Measurement Scales
  • What Is a Reflective Scale?
  • What Is a Formative Scale and Why Do the Items of a Formative Scale Not Necessarily Hang Together?
  • Measures from Management Accounting Research
  • Measures from Management Research
  • Measures from Marketing Research

 

9 Experimental Designs

  • Introduction
  • The Lab Experiment
  • Controlling the Contaminating Exogenous or ‘Nuisance’ Variables
  • The Field Experiment
  • External and Internal Validity in Experiments
  • Identifying Threats to Validity
  • Review of Factors Affecting Internal and External Validity
  • Types of Experimental Design and Validity
  • Ex Post Facto Designs
  • Simulation
  • Ethical Issues in Experimental Design Research
  • Managerial Implications

10 Sampling

  • Introduction
  • Population, Element, Sample, Sampling Unit and Subject
  • Sample Data and Population Values
  • Normality of Distributions
  • The Sampling Process
  • Probability Sampling
  • Unrestricted or Simple Random Sampling
  • Restricted or Complex Probability Sampling
  • Review of Probability Sampling Designs
  • Nonprobability Sampling
  • Convenience Sampling
  • Purposive Sampling
  • Review of Nonprobability Sampling Designs
  • Intermezzo: Examples of When Certain Sampling Designs Would Be Appropriate
  • Issues of Precision and Confidence in Determining Sample Size
  • Sample Data and Hypothesis Testing
  • The Sample Size
  • Sampling as Related to Qualitative Studies

 

11 Qualitative Data Analysis

  • Introduction
  • Three Important Steps in Qualitative Data Analysis
  • Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research
  • Some Other Methods of Gathering and Analysing Qualitative Data


12 Quantitative Data Analysis: Hypothesis Testing

  • Introduction
  • Getting the Data Ready for Analysis
  • Getting a Feel for the Data
  • Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion
  • Relationships Between Variables
  • Type I Errors, Type II Errors and Statistical Power
  • Choosing the Appropriate Statistical Technique

 

13 Quantitative Data Analysis: Bivariate Analysis

  • Introduction
  • Correlation
  • Validity

 

14 Quantitative Data Analysis: Multivariate Analysis I

  • Introduction
  • Multiple Regression
  • Logistic Regression
  • Discriminant Analysis
  • Conjoint Analysis
  • Two-Way ANOVA
  • MANOVA
  • Canonical Correlation
  • Mediation Analysis
  • Big Data Mining and Operations Research
  • Some Software
  • Packages Useful for Data Analysis

 

 

15 Quantitative Data Analysis: Multivariate Analysis II

  • Introduction
  • Partitioning the Variance in Factor Analysis
  • Extracting Factor Approach 2: Common Factor Analysis
  • Cluster Analysis
  • Multidimensional Scaling

 

16 The Research Report

  • Introduction
  • The Written Report
  • Contents of the Research Report
  • Oral Presentation

 

Summary

Discussion Questions

Appendix: Examples

Report 1: Sample of a Report Involving a Descriptive Study

Report 2: Sample of a Report Offering Alternative Solutions and Explaining the Pros and Cons of Each Alternative

Report 3: Example of an Abridged Basic Research Report

 

17 Conclusions

 

Case Studies

A Final Note to Students

Statistical Tables

Glossary

Bibliography

Index

 

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