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Groundwater Hydrology, 3ed (An Indian Adaptation)

David Keith Todd, Larry W. Mays

ISBN: 9788194726333

560 pages



Groundwater Hydrology is a classic textbook that provides a unified presentation of groundwater hydrology, treating fundamental principles, methods, and problems encountered in the field as a whole. Continuing its forty-year history of providing students and professionals with a thorough grounding in the science and technology of groundwater hydrology, the book explores the many new developments that have occurred in the groundwater field in recent years, concerns and competition for water supplies, contamination of groundwater, and enhanced regulation of water resources. The book also focuses on modern groundwater modeling tools, including a detailed description of MODFLOW.


1. Introduction

1.1 Scope

1.2 Historical Background

1.3 Trends in Water Withdrawals and Use

1.4 Utilization of Groundwater

1.5 Groundwater in the Hydrologic Cycle

1.6 Hydrologic Budget Case StudyLake Five-O, Florida

1.7 Publication Sources

1.8 Data Sources


2. Occurrence Of Groundwater

2.1 Origin and Age of Groundwater

2.2 Rock Properties Affecting Groundwater

2.3 Vertical Distribution of Groundwater

2.4 Zone of Aeration

2.5 Zone of Saturation

2.6 Geologic Formations as Aquifers

2.7 Types of Aquifers

2.8 Storage Coefficient

2.9 Groundwater Basins/Regional Groundwater Flow Systems

2.10 Springs


3. Groundwater Movement

3.1 Darcy’s Law

3.2 Permeability

3.3 Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity

3.4 Anisotropic Aquifers

3.5 Groundwater Flow Rates

3.6 Groundwater Flow Directions

3.7 General Flow Equations

3.8 Unsaturated Flow

3.9 Kinematic Wave

3.10 Infiltration: The Green–Ampt Method

3.11 Double Ring Infiltrometer


4. Groundwater And Well Hydraulics

4.1 Steady Unidirectional Flow

4.2 Steady Radial Flow to a Well

4.3 Well in a Uniform Flow

4.4 Unsteady Radial Flow in a Confined Aquifer

4.5 Unsteady Radial Flow in an Unconfined Aquifer

4.6 Unsteady Radial Flow in a Leaky Aquifer

4.7 Well Flow Near Aquifer Boundaries

4.8 Multiple Well Systems

4.9 Partially Penetrating Wells

4.10 Well Flow for Special Conditions


5. Water Wells

5.1 Test Holes and Well Logs

5.2 Methods for Constructing Shallow Wells

5.3 Methods for Drilling Deep Wells

5.4 Well Completion

5.5 Well Development

5.6 Testing Wells for Yield

5.7 Pumping Equipment

5.8 Protection of Wells

5.9 Well Rehabilitation

5.10 Horizontal Wells

5.11 Characteristic Well Losses

5.12 Specific Capacity and Well Efficiency

5.13 Slug Tests


6. Groundwater Levels And Environmental Influences

6.1 Time Variations of Levels

6.2 Streamflow and Groundwater Levels

6.3 Fluctuations Due to Evapotranspiration

6.4 Fluctuations Due to Meteorological Phenomena

6.5 Fluctuations Due to Tides

6.6 Urbanization

6.7 Earthquakes

6.8 External Loads

6.9 Effects of Global Climate Change On Groundwater


7. Quality Of Groundwater

7.1 Natural Groundwater Quality

7.2 Sources of Salinity

7.3 Measures of Water Quality

7.4 Chemical Analysis

7.5 Graphical Representations

7.6 Physical Analysis

7.7 Biological Analysis

7.8 Groundwater Samples

7.9 Water-Quality Criteria

7.10 Changes in Chemical Composition

7.11 Dissolved Gases

7.12 Temperature

7.13 Saline Groundwater

7.14 Monitoring Groundwater Quality

7.15 Solute Transport in Saturated Porous Media

7.16 Dispersion

7.17 Advection–Dispersion Equation for Solute Transport in Saturated Porous Media

7.18 Groundwater Tracers


8. Pollution Of Groundwater

8.1 Pollution in Relation to Water Use

8.2 Municipal Sources and Causes and Causes

8.4 Agricultural Sources and Causes

8.5 Miscellaneous Sources and Causes

8.6 Attenuation of Pollution

8.7 Distribution of Pollution Underground

8.8 Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater

8.9 Conventional Pump-and-Treatment Systems


9. Groundwater Flow Modeling Techniques

9.1 Why Develop Groundwater Models?

9.2 Types of Groundwater Models

9.3 Steps in the Development of a Groundwater Model

9.4 Simulation of Two-Dimensional Groundwater Systems

9.5 Three-Dimensional Groundwater Flow Model

9.6 Tools for Numerical Groundwater Modeling

9.7 Case Study—Using MODFLOW: Lake Five-O, Florida

9.8 Example Applications and Input of MODFLOW

9.9 Groundwater Modeling Software Support


10. Management Of Groundwater

10.1 Concepts of Basin Management

10.2 Groundwater Basin Investigations and Data Collection

10.3 Yield

10.4 Conjunctive Use and Watershed Management

10.5 Groundwater Management: Water Laws and Policies

10.6 Groundwater Management: Initiatives in India

10.7 Groundwater Management Using Models


11. Surface Investigations Of Groundwater

11.1 Geologic Methods

11.2 Remote Sensing

11.3 Geophysical Exploration

11.4 Electrical Resistivity Method

11.5 Seismic Refraction Method

11.6 Gravity and Magnetic Methods


12. Subsurface Investigations Of Groundwater

12.1 Test Drilling

12.2 Water-Level Measurement

12.3 Geophysical Logging

12.4 Resistivity Logging

12.5 Spontaneous Potential Logging

12.6 Radiation Logging

12.7 Temperature Logging

12.8 Caliper Logging

12.9 Fluid-Conductivity Logging

12.10 Fluid-Velocity Logging

12.11 Miscellaneous Logging Techniques

12.12 Other Subsurface Methods

12.13 Case Study


13. Artificial Recharge Of Groundwater

13.1 Concept of Artificial Recharge

13.2 Recharge Methods

13.3 Wastewater Recharge For Reuse

13.4 Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) Systems

13.5 Innovative Approaches

13.6 Induced Recharge


14. Saline Water Intrusion In Aquifers

14.1 Occurrence of Saline-Water Intrusion

14.2 Ghyben–Herzberg Relation Between Fresh and Saline Waters

14.3 Shape of the Fresh–Saltwater Interface

14.4 Structure of the Fresh–Saltwater Interface

14.5 Effect of Wells on Seawater Intrusion

14.6 Upconing of Saline Water

14.7 Fresh–Saltwater Relations on Oceanic Islands

14.8 Seawater Intrusion in Karst Terrains

14.9 Control of Saline-Water Intrusion

14.10 Examples of Seawater Intrusion




Multiple Choice Questions

Appendix A: Metric Units and English Equivalents

Appendix B: List of Websites and Nongovernmental Organizations

Appendix C: Modflow Input and Output Data for Examples in Chapter 9





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