# Engineering Physics, As per AICTE

ISBN: 9788126521418

804 pages

## Description

The Engineering Physics course is designed with an objective to build a solid foundation in fundamentals

of physics and relate these to engineering applications. This book offers complete coverage of the course as per the latest AICTE recommended curriculum. Starting with Introduction to Electromagnetic Theory, the book covers concepts in Mechanics and Quantum Mechanics important from engineering

perspective and then topics in Oscillations, Waves and Optics.

1. Electrostatics

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Electric Field and Electrostatic Potential for a Charge Distribution

1.3 Divergence and Curl of Electrostatic Field

1.4 Laplace’s and Poisson’s Equation for Electrostatic Potential (General Theory)

1.5 Electrostatics in Practical Applications

1.6 Boundary Conditions of Electric Field and Electrostatic Potential

1.7 Method of Images

1.8 Energy of a Charge Distribution and Its Expression in Terms of Electric Field

2 Electrostatics in Linear Dielectric Medium

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Electrostatic Field and Electrostatic Potential of a Dipole

2.3 Bound Charges due to Electric Polarization

2.4 Electric Displacement

2.5 Boundary Conditions on Displacement

2.6 Solving Simple Electrostatics Problems (in Presence of Dielectrics)

3 Fundamentals of Magnetostatics

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Current and Current Density

3.3 Biot–Savart Law: Magnetic Induction of a Steady Current

3.4 Divergence and Curl of a Magnetic Field

3.5 Maxwell’s Equations

3.6 Magnetic Potentials

4 Magnetostatics in Linear Magnetic Medium

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Magnetization and Bound Currents

4.3 Auxiliary Magnetic Field H Vector ()

4.4 Magnetic Susceptibility and Ferromagnetic, Paramagnetic and Diamagnetic Materials

4.5 Magnetic Field in Presence of Magnetic Materials – Qualitatively

4.6 Solving for Magnetic Field – For Simple Magnets Like Bar Magnet

5 Electromagnetic Induction – Faraday’s Law and Lenz’s Law

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Magnetic Flux

5.3 Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction

5.4 Lenz’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction

5.5 Motional EMF

5.6 Eddy Currents and Electromagnetic Braking

5.7 Differential Form of Faraday’s Law: Electric Field due to a Magnetic Field

5.8 Calculating Electric Field due to Changing Magnetic Fields in Quasi-Static Approximation

5.9 Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field by a Coil (or Solenoid or Inductor)

6 Electromagnetism: Displacement Current, Magnetic Field due to Time-Dependent Electric Field and Maxwell’s Equations

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Continuity Equation for Current Densities

6.3 Modifying Equation for the Curl of a Magnetic Field

6.4 Displacement Current and a Magnetic Field Arising from Time-Dependent Electric Field

6.5 Calculating Magnetic Field due to Changing Electric Field in Quasi-Static Approximation

6.6 Maxwell’s Equations

6.7 Energy in Electromagnetic Field (Poynting’s Theorem)

6.8 Energy Flow and Poynting Vector

6.9 Discussion of Momentum in Electromagnetic Fields – Qualitatively

7 Electromagnetic Waves

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Wave Equation 1

7.3 Plane Electromagnetic Waves in Vacuum and Their Transverse Nature

7.4 Relation between Electric and Magnetic Fields of Electromagnetic Wave

7.5 Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves and Resultant Pressure

7.6 Reflection and Transmission at Normal Incidence

8 Forces and Newton’s Laws of Motion

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Transformation of Scalar and Vector Quantities

8.3 Forces in Nature

8.4 Newton’s Laws of Motion and Their Completeness in Describing Particle Motion

8.5 Form Invariance of Newton’s Second Law and Galilean Transformation

8.6 Newtons Equations in Cartesian and Polar Coordinate Systems

8.7 Problems Including Constraints and Friction

8.8 Extension to Spherical and Cylindrical Coordinate Systems

9 Mechanics – Central Force Problems

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Potential Energy Function

9.3 Equipotential Surfaces

9.4 Conservative and Non-Conservative Forces

9.5 Meaning of Gradient

9.6 Curl of a Force Field

9.7 Central Forces

9.8 Conservation of Angular Momentum

9.9 General Equation of an Orbit

9.10 Motion under Central Force

9.11 Differential Equation for the Orbit

9.12 Energy Equation and Energy Diagrams

9.13 Kepler Problem: Inverse Square Law

10 Frames of Reference

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Rotating Frames

10.3 Applications of Coriolis Force

11 Basics of Harmonic Motion

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Vibrations and Small Oscillations

11.3 Simple Harmonic Oscillator

11.4 Some Important Examples of Simple Harmonic Oscillators

11.5 Damped Harmonic Oscillator

11.6 Damping in an LCR Oscillator

11.7 Forced (or Driven) Harmonic Oscillator

11.8 LCR in Series Driven by External Sinusoidal Voltage: Electrical Resonance in a Forced Harmonic Oscillator

12 Rigid Body Dynamics: Rotation and Translation

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Degrees of Freedom of a Rigid Body

12.3 Kinetic Energy of Rotating Body

12.4 Definition of a Rigid Body

12.5 Principal Axes

12.6 Euler’s Equation of Motion for a Rigid Body

13 Rigid Body Dynamics: Two- and Three-Dimensional Motion

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Two- and Three-Dimensional Motion

13.3 Rigid Bodies

14 Introduction of Quantum Mechanics: Wave Nature of Particles and Schrödinger Equation

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Wave Nature of Particles – The de Broglie Hypothesis

14.3 Phase Velocity and Group Velocity

14.4 Schrödinger’s Wave Equation

14.5 Born Interpretation of Wave Function

14.6 Limitations on ψ

14.7 Orthogonal, Normalized and Orthonormal Function

14.8 Probability Current Density

14.9 Expectation Values

14.10 Uncertainty Principle

14.11 Uncertainty Principle – Thought Experiments

14.12 Applications of Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle

15 Quantum Mechanics: Mathematical Preliminaries

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Complex Numbers

15.3 Linear Vector Space

15.4 Operators

15.5 Hermite Polynomials

15.6 Legendre Differential Equation

16 Applications of Schrödinger Equation

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Particle Enclosed within One-Dimensional Box

16.3 Delta Function Potential

16.4 Square Well Potential of Finite Depth

16.5 Potential Barrier Problem

16.6 Radioactive Disintegration by a-Particles

16.7 Field Ionization

16.8 Scanning Tunneling Microscope

16.9 Linear Harmonic Oscillator

16.10 Three-Dimensional Problems

16.11 Angular Momentum Operators

16.12 Orbitals

16.13 Numerical Solution of Stationary-State Radial Schrödinger Equation for Spherically

17 Introduction to Molecular Bonding

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Double Delta Function Potential

17.3 Singlet and Triplet States

17.4 Chemical Bonding

17.5 Hybridization

18 Introduction to Solids

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Classical Free Electron Theory

18.3 Sommerfeld Quantum Theory

18.4 Bloch Theorem

18.5 Kronig–Penney Model

18.6 Numerical Solution for Energy in One-Dimensional Periodic Lattice by

Mixing Plane Waves

18.7 Distinction between Metals, Insulators and Semiconductors

19 Simple Harmonic Motion: Damped and Forced Vibrations

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Simple Harmonic Motion

19.3 Characteristics of SHM

19.4 Linear Simple Harmonic Motion

19.5 Phasor Representation of SHM

19.6 Complex Number Notation of SHM

19.7 Velocity and Acceleration in SHM

19.8 Differential Equation of SHM

19.9 Mechanical Oscillator

19.10 Electrical Oscillator

19.11 Energy of a Simple Harmonic Oscillator

19.12 Types of Simple Harmonic Motion

19.13 Types of Damped Oscillations

19.14 Damping: Mathematical Treatment

19.15 Energy of a Damped Oscillator

19.16 Forced Oscillations

20 Non-Dispersive Waves and Introduction to Dispersion

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Classification of Waves

20.3 Wave Equation

20.4 Reflection and Transmission of Waves at a Boundary

20.5 Impedance Matching

20.6 Standing Waves and Their Eigen Frequencies

20.7 Longitudinal Waves and Their Wave Equation

20.8 Acoustic Waves and Speed of Sound

20.9 Standing Sound Waves

20.10 Waves with Dispersion

20.11 Water Waves

20.12 Superposition of Waves

20.13 Fourier Theorem

20.14 Phase Velocity and Group Velocity

20.15 Transverse Non-Dispersive Wave in One-Dimension

20.16 Ultrasonic Waves

20.17 Water Waves

20.18 Transverse Dispersive Wave in One-Dimension

20.19 Harmonic Waves

20.20 Evanescent Waves: Fundamentals

21 Propagation of Light and Geometrical Optics

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Fermat’s Principle of Least Time or Stationary Time

21.3 Mirage Effect

21.4 Light as an Electromagnetic Wave

21.5 Fresnel’s Equation

21.6 Brewster’s Angle

21.7 Total Internal Reflection

21.8 Evanescent Waves or Surface Waves

21.9 Mirrors

21.10 Lenses

21.11 Cardinal Points of an Optical System

21.12 Optical Instruments

21.13 Transfer Formula

22 Wave Optics

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Huygens Principle

22.3 Principle of Superposition

22.4 Interference

22.5 Diffraction

22.6 Rayleigh Criterion

22.7 Diffraction Gratings

22.8 Mach–Zehnder Interferometer

23 Laser and Its Applications

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Principles of Laser Action

23.3 Characteristics of Laser

23.4 Einstein’s Theory of Spontaneous and Stimulated Emissions

23.5 Types of Lasers

Important Points and Formulas

Multiple Choice Questions

Review Questions

Numerical Problems

Answer Key

Lab Manual

Experiment 1 Resonance Phenomena in LCR Circuit

Experiment 2 Magnetic Field from Helmholtz Coil

Experiment 3 Coupled Oscillators

Experiment 4 Experiment on Air-Track

Experiment 5 Measurement of Moment of Inertia

Experiment 6 Experiment with Gyroscope

Experiment 7 Frank–Hertz Experiment

Experiment 8 Photoelectric Experiment: Determination of Planck’s Constant

Experiment 9 Experiment on Diffraction: Determination of Wavelength of Laser

Light Using a Diffraction Grating

Experiment 10 Experiment on Interference: Formation of Newton’s Rings

Experiment 11 Measurement of Speed of Light on a Tabletop Using Modulation

Experiment 12 Experiment to Measure Minimum Deviation of a Prism Using Spectrometer

Index