# Engineering Physics: Theory and Practical, 2ed

ISBN: 9788126570157

424 pages

## Description

This book has been written to serve as a text for revised syllabus of Engineering Physics-I (NAS-101), Engineering Physics-II (NAS-201) and Practical (NAS-151/251) of Uttar Pradesh Technical University (UPTU), Lucknow. The requirements of the students have been fulfilled by explaining the basic principles and applications of Engineering Physics in a simple, lucid and systematic manner. Extensive care has also been taken in such a manner that the beginners will also grasp and understand the complex ideas easily with appropriate examples, neatly drawn diagrams, tables wherever required, etc. The accompanying LAB MANUAL provides detailed theory, method, observation table and question and answer for viva-voce. It provides complete information on all experiments prescribed as per UPTU syllabus.

Preface to the Second Edition

Preface to the First Edition

About the Authors

Chapter 1 Relativistic Mechanics

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Some Important Terms

1.3 Frame of Reference

1.4 Earth: Inertial or Non-Inertial Frame of Reference?

1.5 Ether Hypothesis

1.6 Michelson−Morley Experiment

1.7 Einstein’s Postulates of Special Theory of Relativity

1.8 Galilean Transformation

1.9 Lorentz Transformations

1.10 Inverse Lorentz Transformations Equations

1.11 Consequences of Lorentz Transformations

1.12 Twin Paradox in Special Relativity

1.13 Transformation of Velocities or Addition of Velocities

1.14 Variation of Mass with Velocity

1.15 Expression for the Relativistic Kinetic Energy

1.16 Einstein’s Mass−Energy Relation

1.17 Relativistic Relation between Energy and Momentum

1.18 Massless Particles

1.19 Examples of Mass–Energy Relation

1.20 Concept of Rest Mass of Photon

Chapter 2 Wave Mechanics

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Black Body Radiation

2.3 Planck’s Quantum Theory and Radiation Law

2.4 Wave-Particle Duality

2.5 de-Broglie Hypothesis

2.6 de-Broglie’s Wavelength

2.7 de-Broglie Wavelength for a Free Particle in Terms of its Kinetic Energy

2.8 Analysis of Matter Wave or de-Broglie Wave

2.9 Davisson and Germer Experiment

2.10 Bohr’s Quantization Condition

2.11 Phase Velocity and Group Velocity

2.12 Phase Velocity of de-Broglie Waves

2.13 Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle

2.14 Schrödinger Wave Equation

2.15 Physical Interpretation of Wave Function y

2.16 Normalized Wave Function

2.17 Properties of Wave Function

2.18 Eigenvalues and Eigenfunctions

2.19 Applications of Schrödinger Wave Equations

2.20 Energy Eigenvalues

2.21 Eigenfunction (Normalization of Wave Function)

Chapter 3 Wave Optics: Interference

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Interference of Light

3.3 Superposition

3.4 Types of Interference

3.5 Theory of Interference

3.6 Coherent Sources

3.7 Fringe Width

3.8 Interference in Thin Films

3.9 Colors of Thin Films

3.10 Interference in Thin Film Due to Wedge-Shaped or Thin Film Interference of

Increasing Thickness

3.11 Fringe Width

3.12 Newton Rings

3.13 Determination of the Refractive Index of a Liquid

Chapter 4 Diffraction of Light

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Classification of Diffraction

4.3 An Important Mathematical Analysis

4.4 Fraunhofer Diffraction at a Single Slit

4.5 Fraunhofer Diffraction due to Double Slit

4.6 Condition for Absent Spectra or Missing Spectra

4.7 Fraunhofer Diffraction due to N Slits or Plane Diffraction Grating

4.8 Dispersive Power of Diffraction Grating

4.9 Difference Between Prism and Grating Spectra

4.10 Resolving Power

4.11 Rayleigh’s Criterion for Resolution

4.12 Resolving Power of Plane Transmission Grating

Chapter 5 Polarization of Light

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Transverse Nature of Light

5.3 Double Refraction and Doubly Refracting Crystals

5.4 Huygen’s Theory of Double Refraction

5.5 Nicol Prism

5.6 Mathematical Treatment for Production and Analysis of Plane,

5.7 Retardation Plates

5.8 Production and Analysis of Plane, Circularly and Elliptical Polarized Light

5.9 Optical Activity

5.10 Specific Rotation

Chapter 6 Laser

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Characteristics of Laser Beam

6.3 Concept of Coherence

6.4 Absorption of Radiation

6.5 Spontaneous Emission of Radiation

6.6 Stimulated Emission of Radiation

6.7 Principle of Laser Action

6.8 Various Levels of Laser System

6.9 Ruby Laser

6.10 Helium–Neon (He–Ne) Laser

6.11 Applications of Laser

Chapter 7 Fiber Optics and Holography

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Light Propagation in an Optical Fiber

7.3 Acceptance Angle, Acceptance Cone and Numerical Aperture

7.4 Modes of Fiber and Normalized Frequency

7.5 Types of Fiber

7.6 Comparison of Single-Mode and Multimode Index Fiber

7.7 Attenuation

7.8 Dispersion

7.9 Advantages of Optical Fiber Communication

7.10 Applications of Optical Fiber

7.11 Holography

Chapter 8 Crystal Structure

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Space Lattice or Crystal Lattice

8.3 Crystal Translational Vectors

8.4 Unit Cells

8.5 Lattice Parameters

8.6 Density of an Element in terms of Lattice Parameter or Lattice Constant

8.7 Seven Crystal Systems

8.8 Bravais Lattices

8.9 Atomic Radius

8.10 Co-Ordination Number and Nearest Neighbor Distance

8.11 Crystal Structure

8.12 Lattice Planes and Miller Indices

8.13 Reciprocal Lattices

8.14 Diffraction of X-Rays by Crystal

8.15 Compton Effect

Chapter 9 Dielectrics

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Dielectric Constant

9.3 Polar and Non-Polar Molecules

9.4 Dielectric Polarization

9.5 Types of Polarization

9.6 Displacement Vector

9.7 Relation between D, E and P

9.8 Relation between P and K

9.9 Relation between Electrical Susceptibility?be and K

9.10 Internal Fields in Liquids and Solids

9.11 Clausius−Mossotti Equation

9.12 Frequency Dependence of the Dielectric Constant

9.13 Dielectric Loss and Loss Tangent

9.14 Application of Dielectrics

9.15 Ferroelectricity

9.16 Piezoelectricity

Chapter 10 Magnetic Properties of Materials

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Magnetic Dipole Moment due to an Electron: Bohr Magneton

10.3 Classification of Materials

10.4 Langevin’s Theory of Diamagnetism

10.5 Hysteresis

10.6 Hysteresis Loss

10.7 Hysteresis Loss in B−H Curve

10.8 Hysteresis Loss in I−H Curve

10.9 Comparison between Soft Iron and Steel

10.10 Use of Hysteresis Curve

Chapter 11 Electromagnetics

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Displacement Current

11.3 Equation of Continuity

11.4 Modification of Ampere’s Law

11.5 Maxwell’s Equations

11.6 Maxwell’s Equation in Integral Form

11.7 Physical Significance of Maxwell’s Equations

11.8 Poynting Vector and Poynting Theorem

11.9 Plane Electromagnetic Waves in Free Space

11.10 Transverse Nature of Electromagnetic Waves

11.11 Characteristic Impedance

11.12 Electromagnetic Waves in Dielectric Medium

11.13 Electromagnetic Waves in Conducting Medium

11.14 Skin Depth

Chapter 12 Band Theory of Solids

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Characteristic Properties of Metals

12.3 Basic Terminologies in Electrical Conductivity

12.4 Electron Theory of Metals

12.5 Limitations of Drude–Lorentz Free Electron Theory

12.6 Quantum Free Electron Theory or Somerfield Theory

12.7 Types of Semiconductors

12.8 Band Theory of Solids

12.9 Formation of Energy Bands in Solids

12.10 Classification of Solids on Band Theory

12.11 Conductivity of Semiconductors

12.12 Density of States

12.13 Fermi−Dirac Distribution

12.14 Free Carrier Density or Concentration of Electrons in the Conduction Band

12.15 Free Carrier Density or Concentration of Holes in the Valence Band

12.16 Position of Fermi Level in Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductors

12.17 Effective Mass of an Electron

Chapter 13 Superconductivity

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Temperature Dependence of Resistivity in Superconductors

13.3 Critical Field

13.4 Critical Current and Current Density

13.5 Effect of Magnetic Field (Meissner Effect)

13.6 Type I and Type II Superconductor

13.7 BCS Theory

13.8 High-Temperature Superconductivity

13.9 Characteristics of Superconductors

13.10 Applications of Superconductors

Chapter 14 Nanotechnology

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Nanomaterials

14.3 Types of Nanomaterials

Short Answers of Some Important Questions

Important Points and Formulas

Multiple Choice Questions

Short Answer Type Questions

Long Answer Type Questions

Answers

Engineering Physics Practical

Model Test Paper 1

Model Test Paper 2