# Introduction to Physics

ISBN: 9788126556021

896 pages

## Description

Cutnell and Johnson has been the Number one text in the algebra-based physics market for over 20 years. Over 250,000 students have used the book as the equipment they need to build their problem-solving confidence, push their limits, and be successful. The tenth edition continues to offer material to help the development of conceptual understanding and show the relevance of physics to readers lives and future careers. Helps the reader to first identify the physics concepts, then associate the appropriate mathematical equations, and finally to work out an algebraic solution

1 Introduction and Mathematical Concepts

1.1 The Nature of Physics

1.2 Units

1.3 The Role of Units in Problem Solving

1.4 Trigonometry

1.5 Scalars and Vectors

1.6 Vector Addition and Subtraction

1.7 The Components of a Vector

1.8 Addition of Vectors by Means of Components

2 Kinematics in One Dimension

2.1 Displacement

2.2 Speed and Velocity

2.3 Acceleration

2.4 Equations of Kinematics for Constant Acceleration

2.5 Applications of the Equations of Kinematics

2.6 Freely Falling Bodies

2.7 Graphical Analysis of Velocity and Acceleration

3 Kinematics in Two Dimensions

3.1 Displacement, Velocity and Acceleration

3.2 Equations of Kinematics in Two Dimensions

3.3 Projectile Motion

3.4 Relative Velocity

4 Forces and Newton's Laws of Motion

4.1 The Concepts of Force and Mass

4.2 Newton's First Law of Motion

4.3 Newton's Second Law of Motion

4.4 The Vector Nature of Newton's Second Law of Motion

4.5 Newton's Third Law of Motion

4.6 Types of Forces: An Overview

4.7 The Gravitational Force

4.8 The Normal Force

4.9 Static and Kinetic Frictional Forces

4.10 The Tension Force

4.11 Equilibrium Applications of Newton's Laws of Motion

4.12 Nonequilibrium Applications of Newton's Laws of Motion

5 Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion

5.1 Uniform Circular Motion

5.2 Centripetal Acceleration

5.3 Centripetal Force

5.4 Banked Curves

5.5 Satellites in Circular Orbits

5.6 Apparent Weightlessness and Artificial Gravity

5.7 Vertical Circular Motion

6 Work and Energy

6.1 Work Done by a Constant Force

6.2 The Work--Energy Theorem and Kinetic Energy

6.3 Gravitational Potential Energy

6.4 Conservative Versus Nonconservative Forces

6.5 The Conservation of Mechanical Energy

6.6 Nonconservative Forces and the Work--Energy Theorem

6.7 Power

6.8 Other Forms of Energy and the Conservation of Energy

6.9 Work Done by a Variable Force

7 Impulse and Momentum

7.1 The Impulse--Momentum Theorem

7.2 The Principle of Conservation of Linear Momentum

7.3 Collisions in One Dimension

7.4 Collisions in Two Dimensions

7.5 Center of Mass

8 Rotational Kinematics

8.1 Rotational Motion and Angular Displacement

8.2 Angular Velocity and Angular Acceleration

8.3 The Equations of Rotational Kinematics

8.4 Angular Variables and Tangential Variables

8.5 Centripetal Acceleration and Tangential Acceleration

8.6 Rolling Motion

8.7 The Vector Nature of Angular Variables

9 Rotational Dynamics

9.1 The Action of Forces and Torques on Rigid Objects

9.2 Rigid Objects in Equilibrium

9.3 Center of Gravity

9.4 Newton's Second Law for Rotational Motion About a Fixed Axis

9.5 Rotational Work and Energy

9.6 Angular Momentum

10 Simple Harmonic Motion and Elasticity

10.1 The Ideal Spring and Simple Harmonic Motion

10.2 Simple Harmonic Motion and the Reference Circle

10.3 Energy and Simple Harmonic Motion

10.4 The Pendulum

10.5 Damped Harmonic Motion

10.6 Driven Harmonic Motion and Resonance

10.7 Elastic Deformation

10.8 Stress, Strain and Hooke's Law

11 Fluids

11.1 Mass Density

11.2 Pressure

11.3 Pressure and Depth in a Static Fluid

11.4 Pressure Gauges

11.5 Pascal's Principle

11.6 Archimedes' Principle

11.7 Fluids in Motion

11.8 The Equation of Continuity

11.9 Bernoulli's Equation

11.10 Applications of Bernoulli's Equation

11.11 Viscous Flow

12 Temperature and Heat

12.1 Common Temperature Scales

12.2 The Kelvin Temperature Scale

12.3 Thermometers

12.4 Linear Thermal Expansion

12.5 Volume Thermal Expansion

12.6 Heat and Internal Energy

12.7 Heat and Temperature Change: Specific Heat Capacity

12.8 Heat and Phase Change: Latent Heat

12.9 Equilibrium Between Phases of Matter

12.10 Humidity

13 The Transfer of Heat

13.1 Convection

13.2 Conduction

13.3 Radiation

13.4 Applications

14 The Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic Theory

14.1 Molecular Mass, the Mole and Avogadro's Number

14.2 The Ideal Gas Law

14.3 Kinetic Theory of Gases

14.4 Diffusion

15 Thermodynamics

15.1 Thermodynamic Systems and Their Surroundings

15.2 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

15.3 The First Law of Thermodynamics

15.4 Thermal Processes

15.5 Thermal Processes Using an Ideal Gas

15.6 Specific Heat Capacities

15.7 The Second Law of Thermodynamics

15.8 Heat Engines

15.9 Carnot's Principle and the Carnot Engine

15.10 Refrigerators, Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps

15.11 Entropy

15.12 The Third Law of Thermodynamics

16 Waves and Sound

16.1 The Nature of Waves

16.2 Periodic Waves

16.3 The Speed of a Wave on a String

16.4 The Mathematical Description of a Wave

16.5 The Nature of Sound

16.6 The Speed of Sound

16.7 Sound Intensity

16.8 Decibels

16.9 The Doppler Effect

16.10 Applications of Sound in Medicine

16.11 The Sensitivity of the Human Ear

17 The Principle of Linear Superposition and Interference Phenomena

17.1 The Principle of Linear Superposition

17.2 Constructive and Destructive Interference of Sound Waves

17.3 Diffraction

17.4 Beats

17.5 Transverse Standing Waves

17.6 Longitudinal Standing Waves

17.7 Complex Sound Waves

18 Electric Forces and Electric Fields

18.1 The Origin of Electricity

18.2 Charged Objects and the Electric Force

18.3 Conductors and Insulators

18.4 Charging by Contact and by Induction

18.5 Coulomb's Law

18.6 The Electric Field

18.7 Electric Field Lines

18.8 The Electric Field Inside a Conductor: Shielding

18.9 Gauss' Law

18.10 Copiers and Computer Printers

19 Electric Potential Energy and the Electric Potential

19.1 Potential Energy

19.2 The Electric Potential Difference

19.3 The Electric Potential Difference Created by Point Charges

19.4 Equipotential Surfaces and Their Relation to the Electric Field

19.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics

19.6 Biomedical Applications of Electric Potential Differences

20 Electric Circuits

20.1 Electromotive Force and Current

20.2 Ohm's Law

20.3 Resistance and Resistivity

20.4 Electric Power

20.5 Alternating Current

20.6 Series Wiring

20.7 Parallel Wiring

20.8 Circuits Wired Partially in Series and Partially in Parallel

20.9 Internal Resistance

20.10 Kirchhoff's Rules

20.11 The Measurement of Current and Voltage

20.12 Capacitors in Series and in Parallel

20.13 RC Circuits

20.14 Safety and the Physiological Effects of Current

21 Magnetic Forces and Magnetic Fields

21.1 Magnetic Fields

21.2 The Force That a Magnetic Field Exerts on a Moving Charge

21.3 The Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field

21.4 The Mass Spectrometer

21.5 The Force on a Current in a Magnetic Field

21.6 The Torque on a Current-Carrying Coil

21.7 Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents

21.8 Ampère's Law

21.9 Magnetic Materials

22 Electromagnetic Induction

22.1 Induced Emf and Induced Current

22.2 Motional Emf

22.3 Magnetic Flux

22.4 Faraday's Law of Electromagnetic Induction

22.5 Lenz's Law

22.6 Applications of Electromagnetic Induction to the Reproduction of Sound

22.7 The Electric Generator

22.8 Mutual Inductance and Self-Inductance

22.9 Transformers

23 Alternating Current Circuits

23.1 Capacitors and Capacitive Reactance

23.2 Inductors and Inductive Reactance

23.3 Circuits Containing Resistance, Capacitance and Inductance

23.4 Resonance in Electric Circuits

23.5 Semiconductor Devices

24 Electromagnetic Waves

24.1 The Nature of Electromagnetic Waves

24.2 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

24.3 The Speed of Light

24.4 The Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves

24.5 The Doppler Effect and Electromagnetic Waves

24.6 Polarization

25 The Reflection of Light: Mirrors

25.1 Wave Fronts and Rays

25.2 The Reflection of Light

25.3 The Formation of Images by a Plane Mirror

25.4 Spherical Mirrors

25.5 The Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors

25.6 The Mirror Equation and the Magnification Equation

26 The Refraction of Light: Lenses and Optical Instruments

26.1 The Index of Refraction

26.2 Snell's Law and the Refraction of Light

26.3 Total Internal Reflection

26.4 Polarization and the Reflection and Refraction of Light

26.5 The Dispersion of Light: Prisms and Rainbows

26.6 Lenses

26.7 The Formation of Images by Lenses

26.8 The Thin-Lens Equation and the Magnification Equation

26.9 Lenses in Combination

26.10 The Human Eye

26.11 Angular Magnification and the Magnifying Glass

26.12 The Compound Microscope

26.13 The Telescope

26.14 Lens Aberrations

27 Interference and the Wave Nature of Light

27.1 The Principle of Linear Superposition

27.2 Young's Double-Slit Experiment

27.3 Thin-Film Interference

27.4 The Michelson Interferometer

27.5 Diffraction

27.6 Resolving Power

27.7 The Diffraction Grating

27.8 Compact Discs, Digital Video Discs and the Use of Interference

27.9 X-Ray Diffraction

28 Special Relativity

28.1 Events and Inertial Reference Frames

28.2 The Postulates of Special Relativity

28.3 The Relativity of Time: Time Dilation

28.4 The Relativity of Length: Length Contraction

28.5 Relativistic Momentum

28.6 The Equivalence of Mass and Energy

28.7 The Relativistic Addition of Velocities

29 Particles and Waves

29.1 The Wave--Particle Duality

29.2 Blackbody Radiation and Planck's Constant

29.3 Photons and the Photoelectric Effect

29.4 The Momentum of a Photon and the Compton Effect

29.5 The De Broglie Wavelength and the Wave Nature of Matter

29.6 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

30 The Nature of the Atom

30.1 Rutherford Scattering and the Nuclear Atom

30.2 Line Spectra

30.3 The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom

30.4 De Broglie's Explanation of Bohr's Assumption About Angular Momentum

30.5 The Quantum Mechanical Picture of the Hydrogen Atom

30.6 The Pauli Exclusion Principle and the Periodic Table of the Elements

30.7 X-Rays

30.8 The Laser

30.9 Medical Applications of the Laser

30.10 Holography

31 Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity

31.1 Nuclear Structure

31.2 The Strong Nuclear Force and the Stability of the Nucleus

31.3 The Mass Defect of the Nucleus and Nuclear Binding Energy

31.4 Radioactivity

31.5 The Neutrino

31.6 Radioactive Decay and Activity

31.7 Radioactive Dating

31.8 Radioactive Decay Series

31.9 Radiation Detectors

32 Ionizing Radiation, Nuclear Energy and Elementary Particles

32.1 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

32.2 Induced Nuclear Reactions

32.3 Nuclear Fission

32.4 Nuclear Reactors

32.5 Nuclear Fusion

32.6 Elementary Particles

32.7 Cosmology

Appendices

Appendix A Powers of Ten and Scientific Notation

Appendix B Significant Figures

Appendix C Algebra

Appendix D Exponents and Logarithms

Appendix E Geometry and Trigonometry

Appendix F Selected Isotopes

Answers to Check Your Understanding

Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems

Index